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Nobue Amanuma
on Thu, March 19, 2015 at 08.13 am

Development Justice - Goals, Targets, and Indicator of Post-2015 Development Agenda


Today, we find ourselves in a world defined by deep and entrenched inequalities – inequality in wealth, power, and resources between countries, between rich and poor and between men and women. The current dominant architecture of development has resulted in wealth being concentrated in the hands of a tiny minority of obscenely rich individuals. Globally, the 85 richest people in the world have as much combined wealth as the 3.5 billion poorest, which is half of the world’s population,[1] and 80% of the world’s population still lives on less than $10 per day[2].  In Asia Pacific, 0.001% of the population own 30% of the region’s wealth. These few people own seventeen times more wealth than the least developed countries in Asia combined[3].

The historical inequality of power between states has led to deeply inequitable economic architecture that has diminished the capacity of states to meet their economic, social and cultural human rights obligations.  It has created rules that benefit multi-national corporations, push down wages, and privatise public resources. Unsustainable consumption and production have led to massive extraction of natural resources, environmental degradation, and large scale land grabbing.

We are now rapidly exceeding the Earth’s planetary boundaries and heading towards catastrophic climate change as a result of existing economic and political arrangements. , Gender inequality and violations of women’s human rights remain a persistent and entrenched problem fuelled by globalisation, militarization and growing fundamentalisms.

It is clear that the current negotiation of post-2015 development agenda should address these converging and interrelated crises of inequalities and climate change.

Since 2013, civil society in Asia and Pacific has called for a new development model, a model of Development Justice. Development justice is a transformative framework for development that aims to reduce inequalities of wealth, power, and resources between countries, between rich and poor, and between men and women and other social group. It places people – that is the majority poor and the marginalized – at the heart of development. It is a paradigm that recognises the importance of sustaining the Earth’s planetary boundaries over sustaining profits. Development justice requires past injustices to be remedied and new just, sustainable and democratic systems to be developed.

Development justice is grounded in five transformational shifts: Redistributive Justice, Economic Justice, Gender and Social Justice, Ecological Justice and Accountability to Peoples. It has been discussed in civil society and intergovernmental spaces in the region and globally. It has been used as a framework to analyse the outcome documents of key forums on sustainable development, including the post-2015 development agenda. The AP-RCEM has also called for development justice.

This e-consultation aims to solicit broader inputs and recommendations from Asia-Pacific civil society on the current negotiation of goals and targets – with a focus on indicators - from the perspective of development justice. The e-consultation will start on 18 March 2015 and end on 15 April 2015. The summary report will be posted soon after. The result of this e-consultation will feed into Asia Pacific civil society submission for Asia Pacific Forum on Sustainable Development (APFSD) 2015 and other relevant post-2015 process. The report of the consultation will be launched during the side event of AP-RCEM in the APFSD 2015 organised by UNESCAP next May on “Civil Society Participation and Role in Monitoring and Review of Sustainable Development Goals”

Guiding questions for discussion:

  • The UN Statistics Division  has shared list of preliminary indicators based on the current 17 goals and 169 targets proposed by open working group.  From your perspective, what are the key principles for indicators? And what are the concrete indicators that would most advance development justice, and why?


  • What role should civil society play in the accountability mechanism for the post-2015 development agenda, and how?


This e-discussion is moderated by Wardarina, Asia Pacific Forum on Women, Law and Development

(* If you have problems in logging-in, you can send your inputs directly to regional.consultation@gmail.com with your name, organization, and the topic that you are contributing to, then we will post them online on your behalf.)

[1] OXFAM, 2014, Working for the Few: Political Capture and Economic Inequality, OXFAM Briefing Paper 178, http://www.oxfam.org/ sites/www.oxfam.org/files/bp-working-for-few-political-capture-economicinequality-200114-en.pdf

[2] A Shah, Poverty Facts and Stats, Global Issues, accessed 28 October 2014, http://www.globalissues.org/article/26/poverty-facts-andstats#src1

[3] Wealth-X and UBS (2014)


Please or to post a comment.
Courtney Farthing Posted on behalf of Mr F H Mughal from Pakistan
Tue, April 7, 2015 at 09.26 am

The key principles for indicators are multi-fold. However, those that directly impact development justice are the inclusion of women, children, and vulnerable populations in community decision-making, and that the governments should allow their voice to be heard, and acted upon. Having said that, the first and more pronounced aspect for advancing development justice is the provision of safe drinking water and affordable sanitation for women and for the vulnerable population, especially in the rural areas. Women in rural areas are generally regarded as second-rate citizens. Vulnerable population is neglected in the development planning.

How can women and girls achieve equality, dignity and development justice, when they spend 200 million hours every single day fetching water? In addition to fetching water from distant sources (and the water is always contaminated), women has to do household chores and prepare meals. Non-provision of safe water and affordable sanitation can have a devastating effect on equality and development justice aspects, as far as the women, children and vulnerable population is concerned.

In many development countries, girls have to drop out of school, because there are no separate toilets for girls. Girls also feel highly depressed during the menstruation periods, as there is no moral support from their family elders.

Poor sanitation and poverty, quite often in combination, is causing stunting and malnutrition among children. Together with absence of hygiene and significant open defecation practices, children are often bombarded with diseases. As a result, in Pakistan, there is only 26 per cent reduction in under-five child mortality since 1990s. Poor health of mother is a major cause of childhood stunting, an aspect that, so far, has received little attention.

The concrete indicators that would most advance development justice are:

1. Need for a strong political will to uplift health status of mothers, children and the vulnerable populations;

2. Strong and continuing advocacy for highlighting the denominators that would advance development justice;

3. Provision of safe drinking water, affordable sanitation and adaptation of hygiene principles, especially in the rural areas;

4. Effective advocacy for menstrual hygiene management;

5. Advocacy for right to water and sanitation. The then UN Special Rapporteur on the human right to safe drinking water and sanitation, Catarina de Albuquerque, recently presented her new publication: Realizing the human rights to water and sanitation: A Handbook; and

6. Sensitizing the politicians, decision-makers and the key government functionaries towards the rights and dignity of women, children and the vulnerable populations. This would go a long way in advancing the development justice.

Wardarina Wardarina Moderator from Thailand
Tue, April 7, 2015 at 11.03 am

I totally agree with Mr. Mughal on his post! You have described a valid reflective question

'How can women and girls achieve equality, dignity and development justice, when they spend 200 million hours every single day fetching water? In addition to fetching water from distant sources (and the water is always contaminated), women has to do household chores and prepare meals. Non-provision of safe water and affordable sanitation can have a devastating effect on equality and development justice aspects, as far as the women, children and vulnerable population is concerned" 

that, alongside with your points on toilets and poor sanitation and hygiene - are some of many Asia Pacific women realities, and also in other parts of the world. 

Mr. Mughal, In SDGs, they one dedicated goal on water and sanitation: Goal 6. Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all.

Please check target 6.2 and its' proposed indicators. 

By 2030, achieve access to adequate and equitable sanitation and hygiene for all and end open defecation, paying special attention to the needs of women and girls and those in vulnerable situations. Proposed Indicator 1: Percentage of population using safely managed sanitation services
Proposed Indicator 2: Population with a hand washing facility with soap and water in the household

I'm not really satisfied with the proposed indicators, it's not clear on what is it mean by safely managed sanitation services, how can they ensure that this service is affordable and accessible? what is it mean also by 'safely managed'? my biggest problem is the proposed indicators on hand washing facility, which I think really simplified the magnitude problem of the issue. 

Do you have any ideas on the concrete indicators for this targets? or any other targets in the goal? 

Thanks and looking forward for your response! 

Fale Andrew Lesa International civil servant from New Zealand
Wed, April 1, 2015 at 07.44 am

The wonderful Wardarina,

I think blanket goals are great but here's the problem with goal 1 on eradicating poverty:


China and India are responsible for most of it given the sheer size of their populations and the rapid transformation of their economies. This allows the international community to ignore smaller countries (especially SIDS member states) who aren't making as much progress towards poverty alleviation.


What we need are commitments specific to communities like SIDS member states who don't have the added advantage of incredible economic growth. Smaller goals tailored especially to smaller audiences will allow us to measure the progress more accurately.    

Trimita Chakma Indigenous Women's Rights Activist from Bangladesh
Wed, April 1, 2015 at 04.20 am

I am concerned regarding the two proposed indicators for Target 5.2: Eliminate all forms of violence against all women and girls in the public and private spheres, including trafficking and sexual and other types of exploitation. The two proposed indicators are only measuring the proportion of women and girls (aged 15-49) subjected to physical and/or sexual violence by their partners or by persons other than their partners.

I am afraid these indicators are not enough to capture the magnitude of the issue while many women do not report to authorities when subjected to violence, especially for cases of sexual violence which is often considered a social taboo. The two proposed indicators are also not enough to hold the governments accountable for taking adequate action to reduce violence against women. The main problem of indigenous communities of Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT) of Bangladesh while dealing with cases of sexual violence against indigenous women is the dysfunctional justice system.  Women survivors of violence do not have access to just and effective remedies while perpetrators enjoy impunity. None of the perpetrators of sexual were prosecuted through any of the three district courts in the CHT since their establishment in 2008, while we have records of over 136 reported incidents between Jan 2007 and Jul 2013 in CHT. Indigenous women in CHT simply don’t safe anymore. Therefore, I would like suggest adding the following indicators for Target 5.2:

  • Percentage of women who report feeling safe at all times in public spaces and at home
  • Implementation of fully- funded national and local plans of action on the elimination of violence against women
  • Percentage of budgets allocated to plans of action on the elimination of violence against women
Wardarina Wardarina from
Tue, April 7, 2015 at 10.21 am

Thank you so much for your proposed indicators and also the stories and data from the ground. It's true that we can't just rely on the data of the reported physical and sexual violence against women. It should go beyond like percentage of women who seek a remedy for violence perpetrated against them; and it should follow with indicators that can hold government accountable like your 2 last proposed indicators. I remember talking to some of our members in Nepal, they say that having law enforcement officials and judicial personnel who are women in these cases have made big differences. Is it the same in Bangladesh?  

Your idea on the indicators of percentage of women who report feeling safe at all times in public spaces and at home is very interesting. I think we should have a lot of 'perception' indicators not only relying with the data on available policies and its' implementation but how women - especially grassroots women - perceived that policies. Maybe if I may add, we should have an indicator on percentage of people who think a women can refuse to have sex with her husband under any circumstances, dissagregated by gender. 

Lynda from Thailand
Tue, March 31, 2015 at 12.30 pm

The suppresion of workers' rights are on the rise, especially in Asia Pacific, we can see it in the failure to pay compensation to the families of the workers of Rana Plaza fall, we can see it in the state's violent crach of garment workers in Cambodia, Burma/Myanmar who were demanding for a fair wage. The authority seems to be protecting the business interests of the multi-national cooprations rather than being accountable to its people-- the workers. Though there is a UN Principles on Business and Human Rights, they are non binding and could not hold the multi-national cooprations accountable to respect and fulfil the rights of workers.  In the midst of this, the one right that could unlock workers' rights to decent working conditions, such as the right to strike and collective bargaining are increasingly being undermined and suppressed. For instance, in some national labor codes, migrant workers are excluded and not even allowed to join unions and organise. When the governments fail to uphold its accountability, the people has to organise-- but with the constant suppresion of workers' right to strike and collective bargaining processes (regardless of migration or sectoral status) is the a backward move from achieiving the sustainble development.

In this context, the one particular goal to promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all, should have indicators measuring the

  • Trade union density
  • Percentage of sectors and/or enterprises with collective bargaining agreements

with the specific targets to achieve decent work and a living wage for all women and men, including for young people, migrant workers and persons with disabilities; to protect labour rights and promote safe and secure working environments of all workers, including migrant workers, particularly women migrants, and those in precarious employment.

Wardarina Wardarina from
Tue, April 7, 2015 at 09.57 am

Hi Lynda! thank you so much for raising this important issues of decent work for workers and migrant workers!

I think your proposed indicators of trade union density and percentage of sectors and/or enterprise with collective bargaining agreement are very concrete and pro-workers! If I may add, that this specific indicators can actually included not only for Goal 8, but also goal 10 on inequality within and among countries.In countries where data has been collated, there is an inverse correlation between union membership and income inequality (see, e.g., OECD ‘Inequality in labour income: What are its drivers and how can it be reduced?’ OECD, Economics Department Policy Notes, 2012).

You also mentioned a valid issue on living wage. Care to give more explanations about it and indicators to achieve it? There has been a growing movement to demand living wage. We need to show the governments that we don't want the starvation rate of USD 1.25/day! 

Thanks again, Lynda! looking forward your response! 


Wardarina Wardarina Moderator from Indonesia
Tue, March 31, 2015 at 10.38 am

Thank you so much your response, Fale! You raised important points in regards to overcoming the inequalities and injustices, one aspect is about access and opportunities for the marginalised groups, the others is about holding the governments (and also non-state actors) accountable. Do you think the current indicators from the UN Statistics Division - especially for the issues that you mentioned (poverty eradication - goal 1) already address these issues? 

what is missing? what do you think need to be there?

Fale Andrew Lesa International civil servant from New Zealand
Sat, March 28, 2015 at 03.25 am

The key principle for me is access to opportunities. Marginalised groups share the same characteristics. They are usually impoverished, lack quality education, and are restricted in terms of employment prospects and healthcare. Overcoming inequality and injustice requires providing opportunities to an even greater audience because this alone can break the cycle of poverty.

Civil society has an enormous role to play in terms of ensuring that these opportunities are offered to the most disadvantaged peoples first and foremost. We also exist to hold governments accountable for their commitments and to convey the priorities on the ground to people in positions of authority and influence.      

Betty Barkha from Fiji
Thu, April 16, 2015 at 08.49 am

No developed country accepts a measurement of poverty for their citizens of less than ten dollars PPP a day, and most have poverty lines that are much higher than that. In the Asia Pacific region, the poverty line is also measured above $1.25 PPP a day. This is because $1.25 is not an amount that allows even a minimum quality of life—it is not enough to secure sufficient food, housing, healthcare and education, let alone to live a life of dignity. What we need is the living wage measurement to follow a common method which can be applied cross-sectionally. We need to be able to promote development-oriented policies that support productive activities, decent job creation, entrepreneurship, creativity and innovation, and encourage formalization and growth of micro-, small & medium-sized enterprises including access to financial services (Goal 8).

Courtney Farthing Posted on behalf of Janaki Amarasinghe from Sri Lanka
Tue, April 14, 2015 at 09.12 am

The process of litigation prevailing in our country is a very slow process, where handling cases takes a very long  time. New methods of meeting justice  should be brought about within a short period as cases are left pending for along time.  

Nobuyuki Asai SGI from Japan
Tue, April 14, 2015 at 04.42 am

Based on Buddhist philosophy which expounds dignity of life, I consider it indispensable to leave no one behind and to protect dignity of anybody’s life on this planet. We should avoid seeking for materialistic sufficiency as a nation or a region sacrificing specific people’s well-being. If development expands an economic gap in a society, it will undermine people’s trust in the society itself, and lead to its unsustainability in the long term.

We should bear in mind that only human beings can promote development justice. In light of this, I think the largest benefit brought about by development lies in an environment where people can realize their potential.

An indicator relevant to such an environment is education. The primary education has been promoted to a certain degree as the MDGs designates its completion as one of its targets. In addition to completing the target, a type of education which raises awareness of development justice and sustainable development is necessary.

Education for sustainable development and for global citizenship, mentioned in the SDGs draft, exactly raises its awareness. I think people empowered through such types of education will be able to do something in their local community aiming for a sustainable world. The rate of a national budget allocated for education may represent how much the government is keen on the issue.

In terms of the roles civil society can play, I would like to point to two issues.

1)    Raising voices instead of minorities and vulnerable people

It is often difficult for minorities and vulnerable people to raise voices even if they suffer from discrimination or disadvantages. In terms of a remedy for those, a judicial system can order compensation if it’s necessary, though there might be a case where it works insufficiently.

In terms of the Post 2015 agenda, meanwhile, there’s a concern that a sacrifice is unseen even if it is imposed on the minorities and the vulnerable by national or regional policies for advancement toward the development goals.

In a sense a civil society is genuinely an aggregation of minorities and vulnerable people. In particular, community-based organizations including faith-based organizations (FBOs) are quite often staying by those people and sharing necessary information with them from a day-to-day basis. Those organizations can help them raise their own voices.

2)    Roles in a local community

In order to achieve the goals, efforts in a local community is indispensable in addition to national policies. In light of this, a civil society will be able to play following roles;

-       Raise awareness among ordinary people

-       Help achieve the goals in a community in a unique way which fits the community

-       Identify problems found in the efforts and share them with governments or experts

We can find numerous examples of community-based organizations including faith-based organizations which actually play those roles in a community.

Courtney Farthing Posted on behalf of Mr FH Mughal from Pakistan
Thu, April 9, 2015 at 06.19 pm
Ms. Wardarina: I fully share your concerns. Your question: “How can they ensure that this service is affordable and accessible?” is valid. 
You want me to suggest some concrete indicators. Based on my 40+ years’ of professional experience in water, sanitation and hygiene, I would suggest the following indicators for Target 6.2:
Indicator 1: Reduction in child mortality
Comment: Poor sanitation directly impacts the health of the people. More specifically, poor sanitation has a major impact on child mortality. I have seen this in the rural areas of Sindh province (Pakistan). Improvements in sanitation reduce child mortality. Child mortality can be measured with relative ease. Most hospitals in the rural areas have data on child mortality. So, sanitation progress can be directly measured by child mortality.
Indicator 2: Number of school children washing hands with soap
Comment: As you can see, the proposed SDGs’ indicator speaks of handwashing “FACILITY.” Almost all homes have the handwashing “facility.” The question is, how many are actually washing their hands? In rural Sindh, women consider infants’ feces harmless, so, they don’t wash hands after cleaning the infants, even though they have the facility.
On the other side, a small, informal study, conducted in rural Sindh, quite sometime back, resulted in a very interesting and significant finding, with far-reaching impacts. In order to improve the handwashing habit, after defecation in the village, the children in the school, located in that village, were taught of benefits of washing hands after defecation, before preparing meals, and before eating meals. The children were then told to convey this to their homes, and stress their parents and other family members to wash hands after defecation, before preparing meals (this was for their mothers), and before eating meals. Prior to all these, it was monitored how many school children and their family member wash hands – this was pathetically poor!
Post-monitoring showed that there was dramatic and a major improvement in the practice of handwashing among the school children and their family members. This also show that school children are a great source for “spreading the word” in their families; and onto the whole village.
My proposed indicator is based on this experience. Monitor school children - they reflect the practices adopted in their families. And, again, this (monitoring school children) can be measured very easily.
Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves
Thu, April 9, 2015 at 02.29 pm

The Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves (Alliance) calls upon the international community to consider the widespread problem of inefficient, harmful cooking practices and the tangible, positive impacts that clean cooking solutions provide to the Post-2015 Sustainable Development Agenda – in its framework, implementation, and tracking.  Improving access to clean cookstoves and fuels is a development objective itself, while also bringing about benefits for poverty alleviation, food security, health, education, gender equality, energy access, economic growth, climate mitigation, and environmental protection.



Household air pollution is the 4th greatest health risk for death in the world

3 billion

Number of people in the world using polluting, inefficient stoves and fuels to cook each day

4.3 million

Number of people who die prematurely each year from exposure to household air pollution


Percentage of black carbon emissions attributed to use of solid fuels for cooking

8 seconds

How frequently household air pollution claims a life


The lack of access to clean and efficient cooking solutions has significant impacts on health, economic and social well-being, gender equality, and the environment – all areas of critical importance to the Post-2015 Development Agenda. Household air pollution (HAP) from cooking kills over 4 million people every year and sickens millions more. Major causes of death, sickness, and injury from HAP include cancers, heart and lung diseases, cataracts, pneumonia, and burns.


Inefficient cookstoves and open fires are also a major source of greenhouse gases and account for 21% of global black carbon emissions.  Recent studies show that of all the presently available black carbon mitigation measures, wide-scale adoption of clean and efficient cookstoves would yield the greatest health co-benefits.  Addressing the inefficiencies in current cookstove models and the use of solid fuel would also reduce carbon dioxide and methane emissions, land degradation and deforestation.


Women and children spend many hours gathering fuel – up to 5 hours per day – or spend a significant portion of household income to purchase fuel. In many cases, displaced and refugee women walk for hours to find firewood, which increases their risk of gender based violence, dehydration, and physical injuries. Spending less time collecting fuel and cooking enables women to spend more time with their families, complete other responsibilities, rest and carry out leisure activities, enhance existing economic opportunities, and pursue income-generating or educational opportunities – all of which contribute to poverty alleviation.


Cooking over open fires and traditional stoves is not only harmful on its own, it is a root cause of poverty, gender inequality, and environmental degradation. Conversely, integrating clean cooking into development agendas and approaches can catalyze impacts across all of these areas.

Lessons Learned from the MDGs

Access to sustainable, safe household energy drives progress and is a key element for success in other development areas. Despite this, energy was left out of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), reducing the overall impact of the agenda. Specifically, an increased global focus on clean cooking as a solution and as means of reaching other development goals could have helped the international community achieve the MDGs.


  • Health: By omitting HAP, the MDGs omitted the fourth greatest risk factor for death in the world.  Exposure to harmful cooking smoke and the drudgery of collecting fuel impacts women’s health, and yet this constant risk was not addressed in the previous global agenda. Pollution, both indoor and outdoor, must be thoroughly addressed by the Post-2015 Agenda considering its impact on health across populations – urban and rural, young and old.


  • Gender & Empowerment: Although full and productive employment (for men and women) was featured in the MDGs, in 2012 there was a 24.8 percentage point difference between men and women in the employment-to-population ratio. Unpaid domestic responsibilities, including collecting fuel and cooking, remain a major driver of this inequality, restricting educational and economic opportunities for girls and women. In addition, the clean cooking sector provides career opportunities to women and the Alliance has worked to ensure that women’s economic empowerment is considered throughout the value chain.


  • Education: While access to education was a priority in the MDGs, girls still face barriers to entering primary and secondary school because the enabling factors, like access to clean cooking energy, were not addressed. One of the main causes for girls to miss school is the burden of household responsibilities, including fuel collection and cooking. Even if children are still able to attend school, they may not be able to study after school or carry out other enriching activities due to responsibilities at home and the lack of light to work by.


  • Poverty Reduction & Economic Growth: The international community could have also spurred greater progress when it comes to poverty alleviation and economic growth if clean cooking and HAP were integrated into the MDGs. The economic opportunities brought by clean cooking solutions can be transformational. The entire clean cookstove and fuel supply chain provides economic opportunity and job creation. Reduced time spent on cooking and fuel collection, as well as decreased money spent on fuel, also facilitates important economic benefits.


  • Environmental Sustainability: Additionally, including clean cooking in the MDGs could have helped the international community perform better on MDG 7 on environmental sustainability.  We are losing millions of hectares of forest every year and black carbon emissions are contributing to climate change. The adoption of cleaner cooking solutions helps us combat both of these ills. 


If clean cooking issues and HAP are integrated into the Post-2015 Sustainable Development Agenda, the international community will make greater strides both in the areas that directly connect to these issues and across the board.



In 2015, the international community has an opportunity to learn from our failure to include energy in the MDGs, and to take action to address the world’s most pressing challenges and improve the quality of life for all. We must learn from proven interventions, like clean cooking, and scale what works.

Goal 7 on Energy

Access to and adoption of clean cookstoves and fuels are imperative for the success of Goal 7 on energy in the Post-2015 Agenda.  The Alliance strongly supports the inclusion of Goal 7, which reads, “Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all.” Under the targets section of this goal, the Alliance recommends adding a target that reads “Ensure by 2030 universal access to household energy services and devices that minimize air pollution.” This target will ensure that household energy and air pollution are sufficiently addressed in the agenda, enabling the world to better address public health, environmental protection, livelihoods, and women’s empowerment.  For the indicators, the Alliance suggests revising the indicator on cooking under Goal 7 to read “Percentage of households primarily using clean and efficient cooking fuels and technologies” to ensure that the adoption of clean and efficient cookstoves and fuels is prioritized, financed, and measured, while also aligning the indicator with ongoing international efforts.


Goal 3 on Health

The Alliance recommends revising the air pollution indicator under Goal 3 to read “Mean air pollution of particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5)” to ensure that air pollution is measured in rural and peri-urban settings, as well as urban. Over 7 million premature deaths can be attributed to air pollution every year and we cannot exclude the health and economic impacts of pollution outside of cities.


Goal 5 on Gender Equality

Additionally, the Alliance supports the inclusion of indicators on unpaid work in the Post-2015 Development Agenda under Goal 5, but highlights the uncompensated hours that women and children dedicate to cooking and collecting firewood. Therefore, we suggest including two indicators on unpaid work: “Average weekly hours spent on unpaid domestic and care work, by sex, age, and location” and “Proportion of households within 15 minutes of fuel and clean water.”



The Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves strongly recommends revising the draft components of the Post-2015 Agenda directly connected to clean cooking to enhance their accuracy and effectiveness, and urges Alliance partners and the international community to acknowledge the indirect relationship between clean cooking and achieving the other goals and targets.



NGO Federation of Nepal
Wed, April 8, 2015 at 07.21 am

Principles of indicators can be measurable, comparable, and easy to understand. It means the progress against the targets can be easily measured. Data required for the measurement of indicators should be qualitative in terms of accuracy, reliability and available in fixed time intervals.


In accountability mechanisms civil society can play following roles:

  • Support the government by expertise services
  • Play a role of watchdog for progress monitoring of targets
  • Create a pressure to the key development actors such as government, donor agencies and corporate sectors
Kalyani Raj Member In Charge AIWC from India
Tue, April 7, 2015 at 04.57 pm

My initial fear is limiting the indicators to just two may limit the implementation of a transformative framework under the SDG. Clarity and proper definition is required under few of the targets like ‘basic services’ under 1.4 and ‘sustainable lifestyle’ under goal 4. Moreover, capacity of developing countries to measure accurate MPI or other indicators is uneven and needs to be strengthened. That brings me to one of my major concern that there is no clear indicator for measuring transfer of resources or knowledge from developed to developing countries. Rich countries need to embrace a broader notion of international responsibility. Particularly for targets under Goal 4 – Providing lifelong learning opportunity, many poor countries may fall short of fulfilling the targets for want of resources, capacity and infrastructure.

Finally The Goal 17 relating to MOI technically cross-cuts along all the 16 goals. We need to watch how the outcome document of the April FFD will reflect or intersect through  the April session of MOI.  Any growth or development will not be inclusive or sustainable if the benefits reach only the private sectors or rich as before. Setting up of number of enterprises alone may not fulfil the target of ‘providing decent employment’ . 

Courtney Farthing Posted on behalf of Margarita Khegai from Tajikistan
Tue, April 7, 2015 at 10.50 am

Regarding indicators of Data Monitoring and Accountability (17.18 - 17.19):

These indicators do not underline clear obligation of development partners regarding specific inputs, outputs, outcomes and impacts (Goal 17. Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development). 

For example, in Tajikistan not every donor or state body shares indicators of inputs and outputs of their projects/programs. As well, there are a lack of public information sources about achievements – indicators of outcomes and impacts. Such situations create mistrust between development partners. We have sad experiences in our country, when the climate of distrust leads to new legal and illegal limitations for CSOs’ activity. It means that we all need to have clear methodology to measure accountability and transparency for all stakeholders. I propose to add a special point regarding monitoring and accountability by indicators of inputs, outputs, outcomes and impacts.

Kuljit Kaur Voluntary work from India
Sun, April 5, 2015 at 09.01 am

I want to say something about Goal 5 on Gender Equality and Empowerment of All Women and Girls. It is a vast subject. We must look into the details. While covering women and girls, we should not forget transgenders. Why do we talk of male and female and exclude transgenders. They are also human beings with a rightful claim on human rights. We must have provisions for the education and skill training to give them a life of dignity and respect.

The second point I want to make is that this goal must have a place for widows. The victims of terrorism, armed conflict as we call them "half widows".

The most important and relevant point I would like to make is about "SURROGACY" and EGG DONATION". Some countries have turned into BABY PRODUCING FARMS with total absence of laws or guidelines. In this fast expanding area, the rights of the surrogate mother are completely unprotected. There have to be guidelines as to how many times a woman can be a surrogate mother, how many total children (including her own natural children) should she be allowed to produce. There should also be provision of insurance for such mothers and arrangement for after care when the child has been delivered. Arrangement for emotional counselling is very essential when she has to part with the baby which she has carried in her womb for nine months. There should be no agents and middlemen between the couple and the surrogate mother.

Donation and "production" of artifical egg should be totally banned. It is not only causing health hazards for women. In certain recent cases, it has even caused death. Respect for a woman's body should be the focus point while dealing with gender equality and empowerment of women and girls.

All goals are ultimately related to women empowerment whether it is hunger, poverty, education, health or climate change. In other words, we cannot make compartments but have to integrate gender perspective in all the SDGs.

Women empowerment should not be defined merely as "human rights", but as fundamental rights guaranteed by the constitution. Human rights do not have a constitutional backing. A strong basis for implementation and monitoring gender equality is required. It is the responsibility of governments to implement it, and the responsibility of civil society and other stakeholders to monitor progress. For this, civi society has to be extra alert and vocal.     

Kuljit Kaur Voluntary work from India
Sun, April 5, 2015 at 08.37 am

Translating General Development Goals to Practical Policies at Home

Dear All.... Greetings ! Goals 1 & 2: In India, while translating the goal of eliminating poverty and hunger into the policy of NREGA (National Rural Employment Guarantee Act), guarantee of employment, is the most ambitious pro-poor scheme in the world. It stipulates a job guarantee of at least 100 "mandays" a year for men and women and ensures a daily earning of Indian Rupees 171 (around US$ 2.8) so that the poor in rural India do not migrate to cities to work as labourers or domestic help. It has been the lifeline for India's poor for the last 10 years. But now, the things have started to change. The primary problem is cut in funds and bureaucratic delays. This has led to a steep fall in the number of projects in some parts. As a result there is no work for a large number of villagers and they have started migrating to cities. Their families are being deprived of 100 mandatory working days a year and therefore are turning destitute. A positive scheme, if followed in spirit, it can be a model for alleviating poverty and hunger.   

Land Acquisition Bill, recently introduced in India, seems attractive on paper. Sizeable compensation is promised for farmers on sale of their land. In reality, there are no guidelines or counselling to advise the farmers as to how to invest the money for safe and adequate returns for their future. In the initial period, the menfolk in the family indulge in luxury and wasteful spending. In many cases, they take to alcohol, even turning alcoholic. As a result, they migrate to cities. There is a high incidence of suicide as well, leaving families behind, vulnerable to trafficking, violence, sexual assault and hunger.   

Courtney Farthing Posted on behalf of Ms. Nadejda Vakhitova from Uzbekistan
Fri, April 3, 2015 at 11.25 am

The UN Statistics Division has shared list of preliminary indicators based on the current 17 goals and 169 targets proposed by open working group. From your perspective, what are the key principles for indicators?

Goal 4

We fully support the Target 4.7. However, it is known that for education in these areas, there is a shortage of knowledgeable teachers.

Recommendations: On the need for training of appropriate personnel can specify here, or to focus in Tagret 4c (national standards do not always include training in the areas noted in Target 4.7).

Goal 5

Issues "Women and Environment" should always be seriously taken into account both the country and international levels. Strategic objectives for the purpose of recommendations to governments - active level of involvement of women in environmental decision-making at all levels. Specifically the role of women in confronting the effects of climate change and their contribution to sustainable development.

Recommendations: In Target 5.5 is replaced by "in politics, natural resource management, sustainable development and social life”.

It makes no sense to talk about the feasibility of the majority targets, if not implemented gender education. For example, in the Target 5b indicated the usefulness of knowledge of information and communications technology. But no mention of gender education.

Recommendations: Despite the fact that Target 4.7 refers to the increase in knowledge and skills needed to promote gender equality, we still think that it is appropriate and in Goal 5 indicate the need for this.

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