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Consultation Facilitator
on Mon, March 4, 2013 at 07.57 pm
Disability inclusive development agenda towards 2015 & beyond

Online consultations for a disability inclusive development agenda towards 2015 and beyond

In many countries, the realization of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) has not been achieved for persons with disabilities. This clearly highlights the importance of ensuring that development processes are inclusive of persons with disabilities and their perspectives for the still ongoing efforts to accelerate and expand progress on the MDGs and in the definition of the new development framework that will succeed the MDGs, after 2015. 

On 23 September 2013, the UN General Assembly will hold a High-level Meeting on disability and development, with the overarching theme “The way forward: a disability-inclusive development agenda towards 2015 and beyond”, at UN Headquarters in New York.   

To ensure that the post-2015 agenda is inclusive of disability, the UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs in collaboration with UNICEF is holding an online moderated consultation to gather views from a broad range of stakeholders on how to include disability in the post-2015 development framework, in order to contribute to the ongoing work for the High-level Meeting.

Building on the earlier online discussion on “Addressing Inequalities and Persons with Disabilities in the Post-2015 development agenda”, held on this site in November (read the summary report here: this consultation aims to take a closer look at the particular challenges faced by persons with disabilities in different regions, and identify the specific measures and actions to be taken by different stakeholders to promote a disability-inclusive society and development.

In this context, we would like to invite you take part in this online consultation, starting on 8 March and running for three weeks until 28 March.

To participate, please log-in or register here ( Simultaneous consultations are taking place in English, Arabic, Chinese, French, Portuguese, Russian and Spanish.  The site is compatible with screen readers, however, if you are unable to access the site, please email your response to:  Please note that the forum is moderated, therefore your post will not appear immediately but will be posted within twenty-four hours.

The recommendations emerging from your contributions will be incorporated into a report on the consultations to inform the preparation of the outcome document for the UN High-level Meeting on 23 September 2013.

The consultation aims to be as broad and open as possible, in order to enable a multitude of voices to be heard from Governments, UN system organizations, academia, media, private sector and civil society organizations, including persons with disabilities and their organizations (DPOs).

Please invite your colleagues, partners and networks to participate!

دخول منتدى المناقشة العربية

Enter the English discussion forum 
Introduzca el foro de discusión español 
Entrer dans le forum de discussion en français 
Введите русский дискуссионный форум 
Digite o fórum de discussão Português

For more information contact:

The discussion forums are available in each language at:

Please or to post a comment.
Bethany DONITHORN from
Wed, April 10, 2013 at 08.29 pm
Thank you very much for your participation in this online consultation, which took place over the period of one month, between 8 March and 5 April, 2013. The consultation is now closed. The moderators are currently reviewing all contributions and synthesizing them into a final report, which will be posted on this website in the coming weeks. Once again, thank you for your interest and your participation.
Roger Marklund from
Sat, April 6, 2013 at 06.06 pm
You could also find this text on our webbsite http://www.handikappfö

The world we want 2015
The Swedish Disability Federation wants to highlight the following points based on Human Rights and the Convention on Rights for Persons with Disabilities:

1. We want the government to include actions on our recommendations in the national disability strategy.
In 2011 the Swedish disability movement sent an alternative report to the government and to the UN that has been processed through a broad cooperation with many disability non-governmental organizations providing a citizen perspective on the human rights of persons with disabilities in Sweden. We have asked the government to consider our recommendations in the strategy, but they are not mentioned in follow up reports on the national disability strategy.


2. We want the government to act on our recommendations concerning the alternative report, lack of accessibility as a ground of discrimination, collection of data and statistics, signing of the Additional Protocol to the Convention of the Rights of the Child, Establish an independent human rights body in line with the Paris Principles.

The Swedish Disability Federation’s comments to the Swedish government on the implementation of the recommendations of the UN Human Rights Council in the framework of the Universal Periodic Review (UPR).

3. We want the government to include lack of accessibility in the Discrimination Act and take action on realizing a concrete action plan for universal design of the society.
On 19 November 2010 the deadline run out for the proposal referred for consideration in the memorandum “Beyond fair words," that the lack of accessibility should be classified as discrimination. But there is still no bill in sight! The memorandum proposes the introduction into the Discrimination Act (2008:567) of a new provision on prohibiting discrimination in the form of inadequate accessibility for people with disabilities.

Summary of ministry memorandum Bortom fagert tal - Om bristande tillgänglighet som diskriminering (Beyond fair words - Inadequate accessibility as discrimination (Ds 2010:20), word (59 kB)

4.We want responsible ministers in the government to talk to the disability movement All political parties but one have agreed that the Discrimination Act should include lack of accessibility.
Only one party says that the costs for legislation should be further investigated. The minister of finance does not have time to talk to the disability movement about it.
Several disability organisations from the disability movement have every Thursday morning between 8 and 9 am a Thursday-Action, standing outside the government offices distributing flyers to the passing ministers and reminding them of the number of days that have passed since the referral period expired.

5. We want the government to take socio-economical reports into account.
Dan Andersson, an economist and former chief economist of the Swedish Trade Union Confederation has, in his report "The doors is closed before all are on board" emphasized economic arguments why accessibility is profitable. The report is not yet translated into English. Here is the Swedish version...

6. We want equality and especially equal recognition before the law.
The Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (ODIHR) collected information from NGOs on hate crimes to their annual report 2011 in the OSCE region. Read our response …
Read Victim Support Sweden's definition of hate crimes...
Ilya Zakharov from
Thu, April 4, 2013 at 12.12 am
Dear colleagues, maybe, the enclosed description of my work with the disabled in Moscow Rehabilitation centers could be of some helpth depicting the dealing with challenges that the disabled faces. If this piece could be of helpth for inclusive model, I would be very glad. Respectfully, Ilya Zakharov, MBACP, Moscow

Work of the psychotherapist of department of rehabilitation of the centre of social service – overview of structure of client requests

Report is composed on the basis of clinical placement in “North Tushino” and "Pokrovskoye-Streshnevo” Centers for Social Service of the population.

First of all, it is necessary to say that any psychotherapeutic work with any disabled person is complex, embracing all spheres of the personality and life of the patient, and is not reduced to the solution of any separate problem. Nevertheless, the reasons which have induced the patient to address to the psychotherapist are different, and I have considered it possible to structure these requests on topics.
At all variety of the reasons of references of patients to the psychotherapist for the time of placement, it is possible to divide them more or less accurately into five big groups.

1. The complaints of emotional and-or somatic character concerning directly to the principal or accompanying disease.
2. The emotional and body problems which directly have been not connected with the basic disease directly, but, nevertheless, hinder adequate rehabilitation.
3. The problems which are not concerning disease and not influencing rehabilitation in general, but are actual in other respects.
4. Issues of personal growth and development (in a broad sense)
5. The general medical questions

1.This group includes, for example, complaints to persistent headache, which is common among the patients surviving traumatic brain injury; difficulties with storing, differences of mood and the complaint to restrictions of a motility at the stroke patients; irritability and tearfulness in a case of thyroid gland pathology; fast fatigue and fears to exceed a certain threshold of physical activity in order to avoid the smothering attacks and attacks themselves at patients with bronchial asthma; the fear connected with expectation of the next convulsive paroxysm (an epilepsy and an epi-syndrome); the low self-estimation and fear «that I will be caught and ridiculed» (the literal citation) of the patients suffering from enuresis, etc. That is, it is possible to tell that illness itself is the object of primary care in this group.
At last, it relates to such a sad moment, as death expectation by terminal patients.

2. The second group unites complaints to the emotional and psychological problems existing independently (at least, such is an estimation of the patients) from the basic disease, displays of which prevent the recovery. Illness can strengthen these problems, but, nevertheless, they are primary in this case. The most often complaints are (according to patients and their relatives): laziness, shyness, obstinacy (one patient with a bronchial asthma has refused flatly to carry out the exercises offered by me, motivating it with the fact that she «integrally does not accept any instructions, because have been the boss for all the life since 20 years”), fear to make a mistake etc.

Dealing with this type of requests differs from the work with the previous set of requests. In the first group, disease itself (certainly, as general, not only physical problem) is direct, or, so to speak, primary target of the therapy. In the second case, therapist works with features of character and emotional difficulties, hindering the recovery - at least, at the first stages of rehabilitation. Very often patients present both types of requests. Rehabilitation (and at the disease itself) practically always concerns the wide variety of aspects of patient’s life and personality, and further therapy usually includes both these directions.

It is necessary to notice that if the patient suffers from substance abuse (alcoholism, drug addiction), work with addiction is a priority anyway, even if physical inability is not caused by alcohol or drugs misuse. The problems connected with substance abuse outweigh any positive results in any other spheres.

3. I decided to mention this group of requests separately because it unites types of requests with which hundreds of people that have no relation to physical inability address to psychotherapists and psychologists. These problems are connected with child-parental relations, mutual relations in a family (cases of so-called system family diseases, like asthma, are not included in this group), communication with people, complexities of adolescent period, a problem with concentration of attention, learning difficulties, psychological traumas (not connected with physical inability) and others. Certainly, all these issues influence rehabilitation, and practically in any case of psychotherapy these moments are being dealt with, but patients usually separate them as particular requests. This group is closely connected with the next one.

4. Personal growth and self-improvement means patient’s self-training for successfull integration or reintegration into society, realization and development of creative potential, seeking and realisation of accessible ways of return to active social life.
It is very important, or, it can be said, crucial point of rehabilitation. Therapists and other specialist deal not onlly with direct requests – i.e., what type of job is accessible for me, how can I get an education, what people I should communicate with, - but also with requests to help, as one patient with 1st group of disability said, “to gain strength for new life”. Complaints on feelings of helplessness, despair, offence, anger to oneself, life and people etc. Without independent work on these problems with which the psychotherapist can help only, returning to integral social life is impossible. One of the major problems of the psychotherapist in work with these patients is, on the one hand, the most accurate removal of patient’s illusions (especially in case of heavy physical inability) through acceptance of self-condition (practice of 12-steps recovery programs can be of good help here), and, from another hand, assistance to patients in perceiving himself as integral person, being able to perform all normal social functions. The other very important point, closely connected with the previous one, is an issue of interrelation of the disabled and the society, or, better to say, with “not-invalids”. Fear of rejection, or, on the contrary, pity from surrounding people, is a very common cause for request to psychotherapist among the disabled. Anyway these fears are surmountable, and, in dependence from the positive way that patients perceive as acceptable in future (there are, as a matter of fact, two of them – return to habital environment or choice of a new one, including communication with other disabled persons), it is possible to help the patient to realize these variants. For instance, patient with 1st group of disability, suffering from lower paraplegia as a result of diving neck injury and moving in a wheelchair, asked me to help him to recreate former confidence in conversation with people and to assist in choosing new way of activity. I worked with him for several months. As a result, he found a job in scientific department of the university, began to write the dissertation, and learned several new computer programs, which allowed him to communicate with many colleagues via the Internet “normally” (citation). Attraction of the disabled persons with similar problems, that successfully passed through rehabilitation course and reached the real improvement of physical and social state, can be of great help here. This method is being used worldwide for a long time (MHA, Alcoholics Anonymous, Society of Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients etc). I also attracted the patients that reached positive results in recovery for counselling and sharing (for example, to help the patients with the consequences of traumatic brain injury).

5. The title speaks for itself. Plenty of questions concern the mechanism of action of various medicines, possibilities of gaining this or that professional medical or psychological help in Moscow, requests for consultation on different diseases, seeking for additional information on the disease and recovery etc.

Statistics on types of client requests according to age and disease was not conducted especially, but, in general, it is possible to say thad disabled children most often complaint to direct symptoms of the disease and to problems, not related with the cause of disability (groups 1 and 3). It is clear, that requests concerning emotional problems hindering the recovery are usually made by more mature patients, able to build connection of cause and effect. Likewise, issues of personal growth also bother patients from 15 years and older, and, the harder the pathology (that is the more the patient has lost as a result of physical inability), the more actual the request is.

In most cases work was conducted not only with invalids, but also with their relatives. Requests of relatives of patients also can be allocated into sealver groups.

1) First of all it is, of course, a question on possibility of personal participation in rehabilitation of the disabled person, that is «How can I help him?». On the first stage of family therapy concrete rehabilitation issues are being usually discussed – for example, training relatives to massage or a complex of pshysical hexercises which are recommended to be carried out together with the patient, to recommendations about the organisation of a day regimen and vital space of the invalid etc.

2) It is turned out very quickly, and sometimes from the very beginning, that these measures only are insufficient without creation of adequate emotionally-spiritual family atmosphere. Common words that are very often heard from the relatives are “Doctor, prompt me, please, how can I make him to do the necessary exercises?","It is very difficult for me to communicate with her – she does not understand me at all, nor I do her”, “How can I manage good contact with him?” and so on. That is, the issue of emotional interaction of the disabled and the relative arises in the request, and there is the patient who is the odject of request here, not the inquiring person. Sometimes it happened to hear something like this: «I do everything for her, and she is absolutely ungrateful, work with her, please». (From the further requests it was found out that «doing everything» for this mother of the 5-year-old girl with a pulmonary pathology meant to bringing daughter into all possible groups, sections and medical programs, performing consultations with the wide team of different experts – doctors, psychologists, teachers, constantly expecting immediate effect and gratitude. Attempt to explain to mother that the girl simply becomes tired of all these procedures, – and, hence, it is difficult to speak about gratitude for such care, - was confronted with rigid resistance and total misunderstanding). In the case of successful work and sincere desire of relative to help the patient and to understand the relations with him, relatives of the disabled person come to understabding of the necessity to change something in their own life and relation to a situation; at this point, the following group of questions arises.

3). Questions of this group can be summarised as «What I need to change in me myself for successful rehabilitation of my loved one and simply for harmonious life with him?» . It is very important point, because focus is transferred here from the patient to the inquirer himself. It is impossible to recover for other person , but it is possible to change the own mind and the relation to the disabled person so that to create motivation for rehabilitation. This question is usually appears in the cases of conflict situations arising over and over again in dialogue with the patient, sense of guilt and self-inferiority (especially in cases of families with the disabled child), strain of relations with healthy members of a family because of concentration on the patient, finally, weariness and problems with own health on which neither time, nor forces remain. (It should be mentioned that practically all clients that addressed with such a questions demonstrated the external locus of control and low level of subjective control when being tested by Rotter, especially in sphere of health and relations in a family). Parents of the disabled child are often the principle performers of a considerable part of rehabilitation procedures. In the process of growth and development of the disabled child new stressful situations and new problems arise in a family and parents are absolutely not prepared to solve them. The establishment of physical inability of the child is extremely strong and significant psychological trauma for his parents. It is known that acceptance of this or that psychoinjuring event comes to the person through comprehension. Despite set of specific features, there are general types of reaction to the fact of physical inability of the child. The majority of researchers (Alekseeva, Menovshchikov) fix five basic psychological reactions of relatives to the disabled child: shock, negation, aggression, depression, and acceptance. It can sound paradoxical, but recognition of self-powerlessness to change something in a family situation and relations with the disabled may turn out to be a good prognostic sign. It marks the fact of comprehension that the former model of behaviour and forming of relations does not work, and it is necessary to change something. Especially it is important in case of family diseases (an asthma, a diabetes), when all members of a family need to recover.

4). In the process of dealing with the problems relating to the previous group, issues of patient relative’s communication with other members of a family and his own emotional complexities inevitably emerge. The problem requested by the client (for example, problems with concentration of attention or difficulties in establishment of contact to people) can seem not to be connected with the topic of rehabilitation, but it is not so. First, the person who has managed to analyze his/her personal features that impede the normal life can help other person much more effectively. Secondly, as the family is more or less closed system (Hellinger) these qualities will be anyhow displayed in family atmosphere and misbalance the family system. It limits possibility of rehabilitation. At last (when speaking about families with the disabled children, especially of younger age), children meaningly or subconsciously copy model of behaviour of parents. The parent is an absloute authority, he can not be wrong, and s conduct and deeds are often accepted unconditionally. Besides, it is known that child orients much more on kinestethic displays than on verbal ones. As an example it is possible to mention a family in which mother has complained that her 4 years old son experiences great difficulties in communication with other children, expressing strong aggression. From the further requests it was learned that mother could hardly make friends with coevals during her childhood, often was accused and mocked because of the obesity («Even now, I can not pass the kindergarten calmly»), and son unconsciously copied this scheme of behaviour. In this case, as well as in many other, work with own problems helped to improve family atmosphere in general.

Certainly, this classification does not reflect all variety of problems with which patients addressed to me. It is necessary to notice that requests of relatives concerning mutual relations with the disabled (child or adult), sometimes contained the information which was absolutely distinct from those which I heard from patient on the same issue. Thus, I consulted the 9-year-old boy visiting Center for massage and breathing therapy. Parents of the boy are divorced, but spend most of time together. Boy lives in mother’s family, where different conflicts occur very often, and all the members of the family (mother and 4 children, as well as father, when he’s visiting the apartment) are involved in them. Some features of behaviour of the patient (high level of muscular alertness without evident anxiety, acute reaction to a touch to head and back surface of a neck, frequent switch from one theme to another during conversation, frequent headache complaints, fast fatigue when running breathing exercises) gave me the reason to assume a craniocereberal trauma in the anamnesis. I was right. Closed traumatic brain injury (brain concussion) took place during some kind of home accident several months ago. I have heard 3 versions of an event (from the patient, from the father and from mother). In this case, treating the trauma consequences (neck/shoulder massage, relaxation training, discussion of circumstances in which headache occurs and ways of its prevention, development of an adequate respiratory rhythm) did not depend on circumstances at which injury has occurred. But in many other cases this noncompliance impeded the work. In such cases I organised family sessions in which both parties participated, while I performed the function of observer and counselor.

Thus, it is possible to say that range of client requests of visitors of rehabilitation department is very wide; requests often go beyond the subject of initial reference and facility profile; it means that, besides being aware of his/her direct professional responsibilities, psychotherapist is to possess knowledge and skills in other areas of psychotherapy and psychological counseling.

I. Zakharov
Sebastian M Flores A from
Wed, April 3, 2013 at 02.48 am
We could talk for days about what might be the best way to create a more inclusive agenda for people with special needs and contribute with really amazing ideas, but no matter what we implement, it must be something as natural as possible for the community.
While you continue making a big noise about inclusion of the people with special needs in all daily activities, it will be harder to create a truly equal oportunities environment.
We have to stop to make the issue of special needs something strange and unusual for everyone.
We can't make people acting on a natural way sharing their lives with any person with special needs if our speeches aren't driven on this way. For example, if at a classroom there is some student with visual disability, and he has some dificulties to read but he's very good to remember and understand the lessons, he could form a group to studying before exams , sharing his own capacities and advantages, while the rest of students also are sharing their capacities and advantages... as simple as that, I put mi brain, you put your eyes!"
Does it works?... absolutely yes, i have done that during my years of university and also a bit at school.
Is it something easy to do?... it depends only on you.
Remember that it's our society the only disabled one...
Tiyana from
Mon, April 1, 2013 at 08.53 pm
The challenges for people with disabilities are severe. These challenges include finding adequate jobs, furthering their education, discrimination and just getting around for daily activities. The challenge of including people with disabilities is that they are different from people without disabilities. People without disabilities do not have to worry about accommodations and they do not have to worry about many of the challenges that people with disabilities face.
The America with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) is a policy that has been made in the USA and addressing this issue. Nothing truly WORKS for the USA because no matter how many laws are in place, there are still incompetent people who treat people with disabilities wrongfully. The ADA however is a big milestone for people with disabilities.
I think that government is trying their hardest to include people with disabilities. In schools and even in public places you can see a change in accommodating people with disabilities. The government can only do so much at a time.
There is a huge change in universities. They are now trying to have programs that are designated to people with Intellectual Disabilities so that way they can have a certificate and be able to get a job easier after they graduate. Universities are including people with disabilities because there is a rise for them.
Darryl from
Mon, April 1, 2013 at 08.24 pm
Individuals with disabilities face daily challenges that many individuals without disabilities may never think about. It is through these daily challenges that many people with disabilities sometimes lose hope in themselves because they may feel that they may never be able to have a normal life. It has not been until recently that the United States has started advocating and making acts intended to make life easier and more successful for individuals with disabilities.
In the last fifty years there have been many acts set out on helping individuals with disabilities. One of the first is the Architectural Barriers Act of 1968. This act allowed individuals with disabilities the ability to access buildings though use of ramps, walks, elevators, and even modified bathrooms. This gave individuals that are confined to wheelchairs the ability to access buildings. The challenge with this was that many buildings before this time were not modified to fit their needs. As a result, there were many modifications to buildings so that they were accessible by all individuals. Universities have catered to this need by installing elevators and ramps in buildings and also modifying doorways to make it possible for disabled individuals to have an equal right to an education.
Another act that was meant to help the disabled population was section 504 of the rehabilitation act of 1973. This allowed individuals with disabilities to apply for fair and equal opportunity employment without the fear of being discriminated against due to their disability. In many cases, individuals with disabilities could not support themselves before this time because they were unable to find employment. This was due to discrimination by employers. This act made it possible for disabled individuals to support themselves.
In 1990 the government enacted the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. This Act more clearly defined disability and made more strict laws against discrimination. This is a clear sign of improvement for individuals with disability. This act also made it mandatory for buildings to modify to fit the needs of people with disabilities.
There are many challenges that people with disabilities face on a daily basis that many do not even notice as they lead their daily lives. We have made small steps in the direction of equal opportunities and fair treatment of individuals with disabilities. In the near future we can only hope that we will see a time when individuals with disabilities and people without disabilities can see equal rights and opertunintes in life.
Sebastian M Flores A from
Mon, April 1, 2013 at 08.23 pm
I truly think we have to start to work from the fact that we are talking here about people with special needs, as simple as that. On the very moment you use the tag disability to refer to someone with special needs, you're building the real barriers to their own development. People usually talk about equally oportunities, but in the process they forget the equality factor. Yes, it's our world the disabled one.
Claude from
Mon, April 1, 2013 at 08.15 pm
There are many challenges to include people with disabilities in every aspect of life. The first that must be overcome is the acceptance by the majority of the world’s population, that people with disabilities are just like them and despite their disability with help and aid they can accomplish the same as everyone else. Since there is an acceptance by a large portion of Americans, individuals with disabilities in the US have been included in many different aspects of life. This is also due to the fact that the government has made laws that prohibit the exclusion of people with disabilities from aspects such as education, the work force, and daily living. It is very important that the government is heavily involved in the effort because it punishes the exclusion of people with disabilities threw fines and cause people to accept them or pay the price. The US made a major step in the right direction with the American with Disabilities Act of 1990. However, there is still a lot to be done in the US. One such challenge is the opportunity for post-secondary education for individuals with disabilities. There are some programs across the US that offer this option but not all individuals with disabilities can have access to federal or state financial aid to assist with the high costs of post-secondary education.
Ashley from
Mon, April 1, 2013 at 08.05 pm
Some people with disabilities are unable to complete tasks, chores, daily chores, employment, marriage, college, hobbies that want to be a part of driving etc. The ARC the Association of Retarded Citizens (ARC), IDEA, IEP, ISP, the American coalition of citizens with disabilities, are policies work to include Americans with disabilities in communities and personal life. When the Americans with Disabilities Act was passed in 1990 it helped with inclusion within the communities of people with disabilities and the way corperations conduct business throughout the United States, making sure those with disabilities have equal and fair treatment and access to services. A positive aspect of this act is keeping students with disabilities in mainstream classrooms and provide special education programs. They keep their social stability and improve their motor skills. Another way to help inclusion is by educating campus's on disabilities and making accommodations, and offering classes to educate individuals more in depth, also having fundraisers to raise money for organizations and promote awareness.
jcampbell from
Mon, April 1, 2013 at 08.00 pm
One challenge that a person with disabilities faces is attitudes of other people. There are still many people with negative attitudes or incorrect ideas regarding people who are disabled. It is important to educate them to help them see that people who have disabilities deserve the same rights as everyone else and can be an asset to society.
The Education for all Handicapped Children Act, which was renamed the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, requires states to develop Individualized Education Plans (IEP) and integrate children with disabilities into mainstream education. This enables children with disabilities to have access to the same education as all other children. I feel that it is important that the government to create the policies that ensure people with disabilities do have the same civil rights as everyone else. It is equally important for universities to encourage inclusion. It is the duty of universities to not only educate the students, but also help broaden the students' minds and help them to be more accepting of people who are different.
Ronnie from
Mon, April 1, 2013 at 07.59 pm
In today’s society individuals with disabilities are having many challenges. Today you have some states trying to pass laws that require HIV positive clients to be isolated from society. Arkansas is one state that is trying to pass laws that would affect HIV clients in receiving care and access to other benefits. The Disability Act of 1990 as a federal law requires states not to discriminate against anyone with a disability. This law was enacted by congress to prevent states from discriminating against people with disabilities. As a disabled veteran I understand what it is to go through the process of access benefits and fighting for over a year to get what I deserve. IDEA 1975 was passed to help inclusion for students in the educational system. Many people disagree with inclusion in the main classroom, but as a parent who had learning disable children, inclusion help in many ways. The social environment helps many kids with self-esteem issues. If we take kids out of the normal classroom this will decrease social learning skills and isolate them making them feel more different than the already do. The federal government has passed many laws that help people with disabilities and continue to improve them today. Many states like Maryland are passing legislation to create focus groups in their states to evaluate what Higher Education can do to provide better learning for students with learning disabilities. This focus group will allow Universities to participate in making the determination to what they can do to better offer programs to students with disabilities.
Lashea Brumbaugh from
Mon, April 1, 2013 at 07.56 pm
Challenges with including people who have diasbilites in all aspects of life include, difficulty with finding resources for accomidate their needs so they can live somewhat of a normal life. Making sure that all their needs are met so they have the same access to opportunites is very important and sometimes finding all the resources can be quite challenging. The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 helped address people who have disabilites needs and civil rights. This allowed for providing services, job opportunites and public accomidations along with equal rights for education. The role of government in inclusion is making sure people with disabilites recieve their social security benefits and are properly approved for their benefits. The role of universities for encouraging inclusion include getting the word out there about how there are people on campus with disabilites and what the camups is doing. It is also the university`s job to make sure that the campus is being kept up to date with current disability codes.
Liz from
Mon, April 1, 2013 at 07.52 pm
People who have disabilities face many challenges in their every day life while having the disability that they have. Within the United States there has been several attempts to insure that disabled individuals recieve the same rights and access as people who are not disabled in any way. One of the ways this was addressed was through the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. This act was the first law to address the needs and civil rights, ensuring public services, employment, and access to public accommodations, several other peices of legislation included The Architectutal Barriers Act of 1968, Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968. These all insure that people with disability recieve equal rights. With the role of the government they should play a huge role to make sure that the disabled are being protected and recieving equal rights. Universities should play the role by encourageing inclusion through easy access through buildings such as elevators, and through having sufficient and quick access to facilities that are equipped to meet the needs of those who are disabled. Universities should have facilities that are made to fit everyones needs including those who are disabled in any way.
Allie McMichael from
Mon, April 1, 2013 at 06.38 pm
There are many challenges with including person with disabilities in all aspects of life such as the negative stigma. Many people in the main stree population continue to struggle with these negative stigmas and fears of those with disabilities. This struggle continues to make it difficult for those with disabilities be integrated in the community easily. There is a negative belief that when hiring a person with disabilities that it will create more trouble because one will have to watch over adults. Although there are now many movements within the United States that help to bring equality and proper treatment to those with disabilities. One of the things that the U.S. has put in place to help create a more including environment for those with disabilities is through proper job training. By teaching these individuals a trade it is going to help assist them as they become a more productive citizens because they are able to make a way for themselves. There is also financial support through Supplemental Security Income (SSI) which helps an individual live above poverty line. This also helps an individual with receiving medical treatment that they might not be able to afford on their own. I believe that it is the duty of the government to create a equal market for an individual no matter what their disabilities are. It should also be the governments responsibility to help lower the negative stigma of disabilities through education. By doing these things the government will be able to create a more equal atmosphere that will give one with disabilities equal rights and a voice of their own. Although this is a good start at a smaller level this should not be the responsibility of one nation, or one government to do. It should be the responsibility of every person. Only together can we make the change to reduce the negative stigma that is placed on those with disabilities. Together we all can make the change but it can only start with us!
Cheryl from
Mon, April 1, 2013 at 05.48 pm
Individuals with disabilities face many challenges in their life in addition to the disability. Within the United States several attempts have been made to insure that disabled individuals have the same rights and access as people who are not disabled. One key way this was addressed was through the American with Disabilities Act of 1990. This was the first law to address the needs and civil rights, ensuring public services, employment, and access to public accommodations. One key role of the government is not only employing legislation to protect disabled individuals, but also to work against the stigma and de facto challenges faced by these individuals. Universities can encourage inclusion through ensuring easy access to elevators, and through having sufficient and quick access to facilities that are equipped to meet their needs to the same standards as non disabled individuals.
Kelli from
Mon, April 1, 2013 at 04.07 pm
There are many challenges with including individuals with disabilities in all aspects of life, take education for example. While including individuals with disabilities in the general education class room may be beneficial to a certain extent it also may be harmful to the student. It will benefit the child to be included and interact with his or her peers however, due to his or her disability they may not be on the same level as their peers academically. Due to not being compatible academically, the child may suffer and fall behind which would result in harm for the child who is receiving no information her or she can understand. One example of the schools in the USA do is partial inclusion for students with disabilities. They are included for part of the day in a general education class room, for tasks that they are capable of doing/understanding. However, for the tasks and material that they are not capable of completing on the same level as their peers they will be educated in a specialized class room that tailors to the child’s specific needs.
The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 was passed that requires “reasonable accommodation” in employment for individuals with disabilities. This requires that accommodations are made so that individuals with disabilities are able to be included in the work force with individuals without disabilities for a fair and equal opportunity for employment. The role of the government in inclusion should be encouraging, implementing, and advocating for nondiscrimination for individuals with disabilities, and creating policies to ensure the inclusion of all individuals. There and numerous ways that universities can include individuals with disabilities, one example would be to create a program within the university to educate students with disabilities. Creating a specific curriculum and specialized classes that would best serve those with disabilities. With this program a mentoring system could be set up with the rest of the student body to get individuals with disabilities involved and integrated with the rest of the population on campus.
Briana from
Mon, April 1, 2013 at 04.06 pm
When trying to include persons with disabilities in all aspects of society, there are many challenges that occur. First off, our society continues to discriminate against these individuals and have a stigma towards them. When in fact, I believe these individuals need to be treated with the same respect as anyone else who does not have a disability. The challenges for individuals with disabilities are decreasing because of the advancement in policies forcing businesses, corporations, universities, etc., to have adequate accessibility for the disabled. Since the enactment of the 1990 Americans with Disabilities Act has enforced reason accommodation in employment. This policy has made a significant impact on the disabled in the United States, because now these individuals have the right to equality in their workplace, education, and recreational activities. I see the role of the government as being advocates for their citizens. It is their job to implement policies that ensure equality in the United States and especially to those who are disabled; therefore they will have an equal chance at life. Universities can be a great source to encourage inclusion. Currently in Central Pennsylvania an agency is working on creating a program at local colleges that agree to create a program for children with disabilities who want to continue their education after high school. This is extremely important because these students should have the same opportunity that I have to be a college student and be included in all aspects of life, and not be discriminated against.
Jill Cox from
Mon, April 1, 2013 at 03.53 pm
There are many challenges to include people with disabilities in all aspects of life. There are many adaptations that may be needed such as new technology, additions on buildings, new training if people with disabilities were to be added in every aspect of life. Another challenge is changing people’s attitudes towards people with disabilities. Many times people view them as inferior or not capable to doing much. This is not true at all, so people need to be educated. In the USA many policies have been added to ensure inclusion. Some are making every building handicap accessible, SSI, allowing them to work and live independently in some cases. Some policies in the USA are Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, and The Olmstead Decision. The role of government could play a huge part in inclusion. One role they could have is to make policies, hold seminars, do research into inclusion options and best way to do it and to do research on different jobs that would challenging yet do able for them. Universities could also do a lot of research for inclusion. They could also be more willing to accept applicants with disabilities. Universities could also make more majors dealing with disabilities, so when they graduate they will be knowledgeable in dealing with and helping people with disabilities. Also, they can provide all the services that people with disabilities need, such as technology and other services.
Halee from
Mon, April 1, 2013 at 02.45 pm
One of the main challenges that our society faces is the concept of negative stigma directly toward persons with disabilities. Individuals who are not educated about disabilities often make incorrect assumptions and place individuals with disabilities in a category feeling as though they are incapable of contributing to society. Oftentimes, individuals with disabilities do not have issues feeling confidence within their personal self. Self-consciousness and insecurities of this population arise when being faced with discrimination from others rather than feelings within their own selves.
Many other challenges are faced among those with disabilities, such as architectural limitations and a lack of accessibility. Many buildings do not have the proper entrances, door widths, and buttons for automatic entrances, close parking or even elevators. Curbs within cities also pose a threat to individuals who use wheel chairs who face limitations in their route of travel. Frustration built up over small implementations that could be made when designing structures of buildings could prevent those with disabilities from feeling as though they are confined to their homes.
In other countries such as Africa, wheel chair access on dirt paved and rocky terrains are nearly impossible. Without any forms of accessibility to the community for this population, they feel as though they are a disgrace upon society and are not given the opportunity to shine their true personalities nor are they able to explore and understand the world. Limited outings throughout the community encourage isolation and a lack of social involvement with others, which in a sense; can sometimes strengthen the severity of some forms of disabilities.
Many policies have successful in the United States of America.
Policies have been included in departments of budgets, civil rights, education, employment, family support, health care, housing, long term supports and services, Medicaid and Social Security.
As a soon to be graduate of the BSW Social Work Program at Shippensburg University, senior citizens have been my specific population of interest. One policy in particularly that I have been educated on is SSI, or Supplemental Security Income. This policy has been a federal program, helping those who are disabled and are 65 and older to receive income. Money distributed to this population is funded by general tax revenues which many mistake for being collected through Social Security taxes.
One may be wondering how the concept of SSI is related to inclusion. Financial assistance to a population who may not be able to continue or even pursue employment still is able to live a beneficial life without being in extreme forms of poverty. Assistance allows this population to still become included in society by aiding them with some of the tools to be an inclusive member of society.
I personally feel as though the government could truly be doing more when including those with disabilities. With that being said, there are many wonderful steps that they government has already taken to ensure inclusion. In my high school, individuals with disabilities had specific classes where they were able to strive academically at their own pace, but were still seen in the hallways and at lunch. I feel that including individuals within the same academic setting, yet still being able to receive the specific needs and materials to learn, allows those with disabilities to feel included rather than isolated.
I am extremely in favor of the governmental concept encouraging inclusion. As a society, we are not going to learn and understand disabilities by running away from them and isolating them from our everyday lives. We learn by being involved, and so do they!
Universities offer many forms of inclusion throughout their campuses. An extremely large helping hand for students with disabilities at Shippensburg University of Pennsylvania is the Office of Disabilities Services. Here students are able to receive assistance in note taking, test taking and many others to still actively attend courses and pursue their degrees.
Also, clubs are slowly but surely developing to offer a sense of understanding to those with disabilities of all kinds, those who enjoy the presence of others and for simply those who wish to learn!
This is the first semester that Shippensburg University is offering not only an in-depth Introduction to disabilities studies course, but also a disabilities study minor. Throughout these courses and now educational focused minor, the tool of education is being used to help prevent discrimination.
Mark Turan from
Mon, April 1, 2013 at 02.24 pm
In this ever changing world, the challenges for people with disabilities still remain an issue for a growing number of people. As the world population ages, the global community of people with disabilities is also increasing. Not only do people with disabilities have to deal with the same challenges that everyone in the world is forced to face, such as poverty, famine and political unrest; they also have the daily challenges of inequality in education employment and empowerment. It is important to remember that these individuals must also deal with the complications associated with their own disabilities.

In too many countries around the world, people with disabilities are treated with a lack of dignity and respect that they deserve. In some cultures disability is looked upon as a punishment toward the family. There are countries, where people with disabilities are looked upon as an added burden to an already struggling society. In these areas many children born with a disability are sent to live in orphanages and are often left uneducated and abandoned.

Many people with disabilities want to work; they want to be active and contributing members of society. Often people with disabilities want to prove that they are not a charity case that needs to be provided for by the government. These people so often want to be tax payers instead of receivers.

Governments would potentially save money by supporting organizations that educate and train individuals with disabilities.

For many people with disabilities they are taught that this is their lot in life and must rely heavily upon others and the government to provide for them. They are unaware of what the world has to offer. By showing them that there are options available to them, it empowers these individuals to be active members of their communities.
Schi Wei from
Sun, March 31, 2013 at 03.40 pm
I see the situation in economic terms. Our world's current economy has been perceived by many as zero-sum; with finite resources, and the key players fighting continuously to get a bigger piece of the pie, and marginalising the weaker players. By creating tolerance and by genuinely facilitating social cohesion we can break this stronghold and create greater and more efficient leverage for both the short and long-term; our total economic product becomes greater than the sum of its parts. There is no risk of creating excess capacity that outstrips demand. Never mind also the Keynesian or Milton's reductionist approaches to solving economic problems; we need a platform that can be a buffer and leverage the necessary resources during a time of crisis such as this. The answer lies in creating a system where the potential of each individual is maximised through meaningful collaboration with others. Marginalising people based on whatever criteria (physical or nonphysical) creates barriers and as such hampers meaningful progress.
Anjelina Cruz from
Sat, March 30, 2013 at 07.02 pm
As a soon-to-be Social Worker and a person who is blind, I appreciate this opportunity to share my views. First of all, I realize there are challenges in including persons with disabilities in all aspects of life, such as working to change trends and long-held societal perceptions. In the United States, the ADA (Americans with Disability Act) has had a monumental impact in encouraging inclusion for individuals with disabilities. When governmental agencies support and reinforce positive ideals, this has a trickle effect into other areas of society. For instance, Universities such as Shippensburg, work to ensure students with disabilities have their needs met. I have learned through personal experience when issues arise, the university is willing to learn more about the issues and implement a new course of change.

I advocate for further collaboration among all disability groups to achieve the common goal of inclusion and independence.
Concerning the blind, I would value a universal proposal which addresses web accessibility and touch screen devices.
Heribert Süttmann from
Sat, March 30, 2013 at 05.53 pm
Dear friends,

in my opinion the main CHALLENGE is to generate tools, making the individual person able to protect the rights, guaranteed by a human rights treaty like the CRPD.

This means for instance in concrete:

1. It is nessessary that the UN-Organization binds every judge and every administrative official to set through any human right, especially the citizen has claimed it.

2. (for the reason, that I am a christian Reverend): It is nessessary, that UNO is fixing the fact, that the universal and undivisional human rights are also prioritary over religious teachings, traditions, cultures.

Best greetings to everybody all over the world from Berlin, Germany

Heribert Süttmann
Beth B. from
Fri, March 29, 2013 at 12.44 pm
I think the biggest challenge in including persons with disabilities in all aspects of life is that they do not have enough support. It is important to push them to do their best and assist them in finding what works best for them. They just want to be treated like normal people and they are extremely hard working and always aim to please.
Helping children with disabilities is the starting point for treating all of those with disabilities equally. Every child is guaranteed and a free and public education (FAPE). Children with disabilities are also helped under IDEA (Individuals with Disabilities Act). This act requires that states assess all children with disabilities and provide them with the appropriate education. These children are mainstreamed as much as possible into a normal classroom and are accompanied with IEP (individualized educational plans) to assist them in being successful.
I think it is important for universities and other post-secondary education institutions to adapt the same idea as IDEA. This will help young adults with disabilities be successful and contribute more to society through employment. Every person, whether they have a disability or not, should be able to be successful and live a fulfilling life to the best of their ability.
Government plays an important role in people with disabilities and they can support them a lot more than they already are. Government should continue to show society that those with disabilities are normal and they deserve complete equality. Government should also finance more resources for persons with disabilities so that they can get as much help as possible in living a normal life.
Brittany Foulds from
Fri, March 29, 2013 at 05.08 am
There are many challenges to including persons with disabilities in all aspects in life. In all establishments of business there would need to specific training available for employees with disabilities. Specific training so that they are able to do the work that is set in front of them. Another place that would cause challenges is with schools as well. There have been many acts and policies passed to allow children with disabilities to attend normal schools and to be in the same classrooms with children without disabilities. Not all schools are accessible for children with disabilities though if they have a developmental disability they might not be able to get into any of the door because they might not be wide enough for their wheelchair if they require one. There may not be enough special education teachers to assist all students either. There are many social policies that are in place to help people with disabilities. There is the Architectural Barriers Act with requires all building to be assessable for everyone. The same is for the Fair Housing Act where the landlord of a home must modify the building to allow people with disabilities to live and visit. The government should be enforcing these acts in all aspects of life. They need to let everyone know that people with disabilities are no different from everyone else they just need things to be more assessable so they can do everyday life like everyone else. They are there to ensure that everything is being met to the best of everyone’s abilities so they can enjoy life. In universities they are broadening their look on people with disabilities. Many now have classes where you can learn more about the struggle people with disabilities have gone through in their whole life. And to see how far they have come from when people with disabilities were sent away so they would not have to be dealt with to now where they are included everywhere. Universities are also starting to be more assessable, doorways are wider and there are more elevators around and less stairs on campuses so any person no matter their disability can get around.
Tina Matos from
Fri, March 29, 2013 at 04.10 am
The challenges people with disabilities face in everyday life can be as simple as crossing the street safely to obtaining a job. Every day, people with disabilities are being discriminated against whether it be for a physical problem or a mental problem and the inequality adds stress to their everyday lives. Simple things such as adding sounds or speakers to objects can help the blind, making numbers and letters larger could help a person with a physical deformity and changing businesses and schools accessibility could potentially reduce challenges to persons with disabilities.
In the United States, the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 has immensely changed the view of society. From this act came policies for employment, communication and public accommodations. From these policies, there are rules against discrimination in the work force and there are organizations such as Occupational Services Inc (OSI) that offer job coaching to people with disabilities. Additionally, technology has advanced and now those who are deaf or hard of hearing can have phone conversations with a monitor that connects to a translator making conversations with hearing people much easier. Lastly, accommodations to public places like schools, restaurants and businesses make easier access inside the building.
The government has been beneficial in encouraging inclusion to those who are fully able bodied and those with a disability. From policy making and the enforcement of those policies, the government has been able to include everyone and I think that they should be constantly reviewing and updating policies to make sure that it fully includes all disabilities.
Colleges and universities have been slowly changing to be more accessible to all. At my college campus, I know that the buildings themselves are rather old and incorporating accessibility has been difficult. If one is wheelchair bound, the route to class is very out of the way. Also, not many classrooms have desks available if one is wheelchair bound. I think that changing campus’ around the United States is essential if we want equality. Many universities are over 100 years old and the buildings were not meant to be accessible to persons with disabilities but since the installment of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, I think that there needs to be changes made to campus’ to be all inclusive.
Jenna from
Fri, March 29, 2013 at 01.49 am
The Challenges to people that have disabilities confronts them every day. People who are diagnosed with a disability normally have challenges in their everyday life. Sometimes it is harder for a person to do every day functions. When having a disability there could be trouble with education, income issues, daily functions, and other things. I also think it is a challenge because there are some people in the world that have not the most supportive outlook on people with disabilities which is not fair to the people that are diagnosed with a disability.
The social policies that have been effective for people with disabilities are the American Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) and The Olmsted Decision. The ADA makes sure the people that are diagnosed with disabilities are involved in the Civil Rights Act to give them all the equal opportunities as us. The Olmsted Decision was created to make sure that people with disabilities are put in an appropriate place and not kept some where unkempt or inappropriate.
I think that the government is a big part in the role of helping out people with disabilities. There are some people that do not believe that they should have equal rights, which is in no way fair. We need to fight for the right for everyone to have equal opportunity. I think the first step in reaching all this is the government protecting people with disabilities.
I think that universities are actually a huge part of inclusion because this is where a lot of the younger generations learn and think, so showing them and encouraging them the equal right and opportunities for people with disabilities is a good start. I also believe that some people might not agree because they are unsure of some disabilities so educating student on disabilities is a good way for the universities to get involved and show people their daily life.
Jennifer Campbell from
Wed, March 27, 2013 at 10.47 pm
The two biggest challenges I can think of for including people with disabilities is 1) attitudes of others and 2)money. What I mean by the attitudes of others is there are still people who either have negative attitudes regarding people with disabilities or incorrect ideas regarding people with disabilities. It is important to educate those people and help them see that people with disabilities deserve the same civil rights as everyone else and that they can also be great assets to our society. The challenge of money is that some of the ways that we need to improve on in as we include people with disabilities require money, whether it is to remodel buildings to make them more accessible, or create more programs that can benefit them etc. Sometimes it is hard to find the money needed to do these things.
One of the programs that have been created to help people with disabilities is the Education for all Handicapped Children, which was later renamed the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. This program has granted children with disabilities the right to the same education as other children in the same institutions. It also requires states to develop Individualized Education Plans, or IEPs, to help the children work around their disabilities and learn the same curriculum as other students.
I feel that it is up to the government to ensure that people with disabilities do enjoy the same civil rights as everyone else. It is necessary for the government to create policies that allow for those rights and help implement them. The universities must not only teach all of us, including people with disabilities, skills to have successful lives, but help broaden our minds and show us that it is important to be accepting of people who are different from us and give everyone a fair chance. We must advocate for their rights so that they can build the lives they want for themselves.
Cassandra from
Wed, March 27, 2013 at 02.23 pm
There are many challenges when including persons with disabilities in all aspects of life. It is a challenge to include people with disabilities in all aspects of life because they live life much differently than people without disabilities. People with disabilities face many needs each day that can differ than the needs of people without disabilities. There have been many social policies created within the United States that have been effective when addressing inclusion. The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 is the first law that addressed the civil rights and needs of people with disabilities when it comes to public services, employment and public accommodations. This was a huge step for our country because it allowed people with disabilities to have equal rights for education and work without any restrictions or limitations. The role of the government in encouraging inclusion has been taking one step at a time, but has been fulfilling the lives of many people with disabilities. Many public places or services are handicap accessible. Today, there are more people who have disabilities carrying out a position in the workforce or having opportunities for education. By creating Acts and policies protecting people with disabilities, the government has made it possible for people with disabilities to be included in all aspects of life. The role of universities in encouraging inclusion has also been growing. Many campuses have begun having groups, clubs or courses available to learn more about people with disabilities. People with disabilities also do not have to worry about whether there are services available to them on a college campus. College campuses accommodate for people with disabilities by providing services and making public accommodations.
Brittany Gross from
Tue, March 26, 2013 at 10.20 pm
I believe that having an inclusive policy would be very beneficial with those who have a disability. As with any policy, there are challenges. By including persons with disabilities in all aspects of life, it can prove to be quite challenging. It would require businesses, schools, organizations, etc to make accommodations for persons with disabilities. This could prove to be costly, but the end result will be very rewarding. A social policy that has proven to work in the United States is the American Disability Act. It bars discrimination of persons with disabilities. It requires accessibility by all employers for those with disabilities. Another is the Fair Housing Act that prohibits landlords to discriminate on the basis of disability. These are policies that have worked to include persons with disabilities in several aspects of life. By working to include them in all aspects of life, it would broaden a person with a disability’s ability to live a “normal” life. The role of government in encouraging inclusion should be through enforcing and implementing the barring of discrimination of persons with disabilities in all aspects of life. They should be the ones to fully implement their country to view a person with a disability as an equal. In regards to how a university can take on a role of encouraging inclusion would be to hold various events or clubs that are all-inclusive for students with disabilities and their peers to interact and work together. Classes should be fully accessible for all persons with disabilities. The importance of inclusion in all aspects of life is crutial to the future of persons with disabilities. Including those with disabilities makes all the difference to that specific individual. They deserve to be included, it is time to stop the discrimination and start advocating for those who need it.
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