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on Fri, December 28, 2012 at 09.43 pm
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How should a new framework reflect the particular challenges of the poor living in conflict and post-conflict settings? 

¿Cómo debería un futuro marco de desarrollo reflejar los retos específicos de las personas pobres que viven en situaciones de conflicto y post-conflicto? 

De quelle manière le nouveau programme de développement devrait-il refléter les défis particuliers auxquels sont confrontés les pauvres vivant dans des situations de conflit et post-conflit ?

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Anonymous from
Tue, January 15, 2013 at 07.25 am

The g7+ must play a leading role in shaping this framework if it is to reflect these challenges.

World Youth Alliance from
Sat, January 12, 2013 at 04.52 am

World Youth Alliance:
The human dignity of those suffering in conflict and post-conflict circumstances is purportedly violated not only in war but in post-war structural violence that remains nowadays, is crucial when assessing the affected persons' future in a beyond 2015 development framework.
Measures to stop the cycles of structural violence should be identified within the social and political structures, to identify the areas in which "avoidable impairment of fundamental human needs"[1] happen in order to break the cycle of violence against the millions of human lives in post-conflict situations and heal the wounds left of the victims, perpetrators, and restore the relationships within individuals, communities and governments.
Free access to the basic human needs as nutrition, water, sanitation, housing and education, should be ensured by the international community, in solidarity with the displaced persons.
An holistic treatment for the victims and perpetrators, and their families, should be promoted addressing their physical, emotional, spiritual and psychological growth, as well as the reintegration to a live in community, to foster their fulfillment, in affirmation to the intrinsic and innate dignity disregard of race, gender, nationality, in accordance with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. That culture affirms the inalienable dignity of the person, defends the intrinsic right to life, nurtures the family, and fosters a social climate favorable to integral development, solidarity, and mutual respect.

[1] Farmer, Paul E; Nizeye Bruce, Stulac Sara, Keshavjee Salmaan, "Structural Violence and Clinical Medicine". PLoS Medicine 3, 2006.

Anonymous from
Sat, January 12, 2013 at 02.10 am

Youth are a key demographic within conflict and post-conflict settings due to their potential to contribute to growth and peace building, but also because their exclusion can be a factor in encouraging youth to engage in violence. Restless Development therefore believes that if the new framework is to overcome the challenges facing poor people in fragile settings there must be an increased focus on supporting young people within these.A recent report by the International Rescue Committee analysing strategies, programmes and funding for youth and livelihoods in conflict-affected contexts (Investing in a Youth Dividend, IRC, 2012) lays out positive developments in this field which we believe should be integrated into the new framework. These include:
- Recognition that youth are an important target group in conflict-affected contexts.
- Increased investment in formal and informal education for youth, including relevant and market-linked vocational and skills training.
- A greater focus on local economic recovery with youth among the key target groups, including specific youth employment creation programs.
- Recognition of the importance of focusing on the specific needs of adolescent girls and ensuring their participation.However, their analysis also suggests that several specific challenges remain including:- Reliance on an unproven assumption that general development programs will automatically benefit youth in contexts with high youth populations.
- Limited comprehensive analyses of the situation of youth in specific conflict-affected contexts.
- Limited age-disaggregated data to highlight the specific situation and needs of youth.
- Challenge of not only mainstreaming youth across different sectors but also ensuring that youth issues and needs are adequately prioritized.
- A need to develop a more comprehensive understanding of the informal sector (a common source of employment in fragile states) and whether and how this can provide opportunities for youth.
- A need for better research on the links between youth, livelihoods and violence prevention in order to develop a more comprehensive approach to youth and post-conflict recovery.Restless Development believes that if these key challenges are addressed within the new framework then this could go a long way to building more a more enfranchised youth population within fragile states who could positively contribute to their transition into peace and prosperity.

Rob Wheeler from
Sat, January 12, 2013 at 12.48 am

Many of the most impoverished countries on the Earth are areas that are war torn and where the natural environment has been denuded and/or the physical infrastructure destroyed. It is essential that the new framework recognize and address this. If all of the UN commitments and agreements that have been made were fulfilled most of these challenges would rapidly disappear. The UN should develop a program and goals to ensure that full scale development and achievement of all existing agreements and goals are instituted in such impoverished conflict and post-conflict settings, along with regions that have experienced what are often called "natural disasters" but are really due to our unsustainable practices.

Imagine the difference it could make if full scale programs were developed in Afghanistan, Haiti, the Sudan, Congo and in other regions around the globe to fully institute and achieve all UN commitments made to date. A multi-sectoral community based ecovillage type of program (such as has been described by me elsewhere in response to these questions) could ensure that the challenges of the poor are overcome and life can improve fairly dramatically and quite rapidly.

Rob Wheeler, Global Ecovillage Network, EcoEarth Alliance UN Partnership Initiative, USA

Anonymous from
Fri, January 11, 2013 at 11.45 pm

Disparity and deprivation are often the core causes of conflict. Experience has shown however that the protection and enforcement of economic and social rights has frequently been overlooked and neglected in situations of conflict and post-conflict. Transitional processes in many countries have been undermined due to the failure to constitutionalize economic and social rights protections, to include redress for economic and social rights violations in peace agreements or to build institutional infrastructure to guarantee these rights in practice. Any new conflict-related goal in the new framework should recognize this blind spot.

-Center for Economic and Social Rights (CESR)

Anonymous from
Fri, January 11, 2013 at 11.36 pm

It is important to build the capacity of civil society, and particularly local organisations, in order to address the development challenges experienced in conflict and post-conflict settings. Ensuring security and protection from violence is also critical in these contexts, and particularly protection from gender-based sexual violence. Women’s participation in decision making is critical at all levels, from local responses to the international level of the UN Security Council.

Luther-King Fasehun from
Fri, January 11, 2013 at 11.36 pm

Dr Luther-King Fasehun
The Wellbeing Foundation Africa
Nigeria


This should be reflected by access to supplies (food, water and medicals); and sanitation. It should also include the plausibility of the conflict-resolution at minimal costs.

European Youth Forum from
Fri, January 11, 2013 at 11.09 pm

A human rights approach including access to justice through good governances are key to conflict and post conflict settings. Cross cutting attention to gender based issues in war including rape of women, and abuse of young boy soldiers as well as gender based violence in “peace” time needs to be incorporated to allow young people to develop.

Anonymous from
Fri, January 11, 2013 at 10.51 pm

The MDGs were designed on the “one size fits all” basis, without taking into consideration the national needs and capabilities of the states. In order to make the development agenda more effective, the development framework must recognize the vulnerabilities of the poor and take into account the specific needs and circumstances of fragile and post-conflict states. It must provide meaningful resources and mobilize the international community to address the specific urgent needs and guarantee the protection of people living in conflict and post-conflict situations.

Anonymous from
Fri, January 11, 2013 at 10.39 pm

Rule of law and accountability to legally binding human rights commitments made by state parties through international treaties and conventions are too often disregarded, with the poorest paying the highest price. Restorative justice processes and the rebuilding of civil society are critical elements of post conflict people-centred development. This has has been demonstrated in numerous countries, where volunteers such as legal advisers have worked with country partners to support their planning and implementation of socially just, culturally acceptable processes, policies and laws.

Gill Greer, Christina Jenkins, Jean Tan International FORUM on Development Service

Anonymous from
Fri, January 11, 2013 at 10.38 pm

First, any new development framework must look seriously at the different context of conflict and post conflict while paying attention to differential and disproportional impact of armed conflict and complex humanitarian emergencies on the lives and rights of women and adolescents.
We believe it must provide meaningful resources and mobilize the international community to address the specific urgent needs and guarantee the protection of people living in conflict and post-conflict situations, particularly the poor, women and young population who suffer from the most heinous violations. To this end, donors should play a key role by supporting with human and financial resources. This new framework and agenda has to include efforts to clarify States human rights obligations and set clear
While protection and prosecution are first steps to address violence against women, reparations and guarantees of non repetition of violence for women in conflict setting are essential. Effective and meaningful participation of women in peace processes and post conflict reconstructions are also central
The protection of women, children and adolescents against abuses including violence and sexual abuse, should be essential elements of the approach . Regarding women especially, the effective implementation of Security Council resolution 1325, 1820, 1888 and 1889 on the role and participation of women in mechanisms to prevent and resolve conflicts must be enable, this through strengthening the capacity and empowering women. On sexual violence in conflict, it is important to remember that one of the most evil forms of discrimination against women and girl is sexual violence and rape that are increasingly being used as a weapon of war. Therefore sexual and reproductive rights, including access to safe abortion, must be protected and guaranteed in such new framework.
The definition of post-conflict must expand and lack of narrowly define “conflict” does not indicate “peace” thus many communities and areas are in vulnerable conflict-like environments but do not qualify for aid, support, and development programs under the “conflict and post conflict” framework.
Finally, a new framework that addresses conflict and post-conflict development challenges must support state and civil society actors (including women’s organizations) to develop national action plans to operationalize the UN resolutions on women, peace and security.

Anonymous from
Fri, January 11, 2013 at 10.34 pm

In spite of the acute needs of fragile states the amount of aid allocated is much less than would be expected. Conflict-affected & fragile states present perhaps the most challenging conditions for open, accountable & inclusive governance & for the realisation of development goals more broadly. Fragile states account for only one-fifth of the population of developing countries, but they contain a third of those living in extreme poverty, half of children who are not in primary school, & half of children who die before their fifth birthday. Fragile & conflict-affected countries are also those that have made least progress towards the MDGs.
While there is nothing new about the existence of fragile & conflict-affected countries, we better understand the role that governance plays in development. For example the Peacebuilding & Statebuilding Goals (PSGs) that came out of the 2011 High Level Forum on Aid Effectiveness identified the foundations needed to make the MDGs achievable in fragile & conflict-affected countries. These are
i. Legitimate politics – a state for all
ii. Security - safety for all
iii. Justice - equity for all
iv. Economic Foundations - jobs for all
v. Resources & revenue management - services for all

The identification & prioritisation of these PSGs could change the quality of aid effectiveness in fragile & conflict-affected states.
The Post 2015 framework needs to consider different governance contexts & make a commitment to the progressive realisation of development goals, even in the most difficult & testing situations. At the same time, the mix of the goals selected for the post-2015 framework can have an important impact on preventing & reducing conflict & fragility. Of the seven priority issues identified by Saferworld as being important for the reduction of conflict & fragility, four are directly related to more open, accountable & inclusive governance. The four are:
i. All states are able to manage revenues & perform core functions effectively & accountably.
ii. All social groups can participate in the decisions that affect society.
iii. All social groups have equal access to justice.
iv. All social groups have access to fair, accountable social service delivery.

Anonymous from
Fri, January 11, 2013 at 10.07 pm

A new framework will reflect the particular challenges of the poor living in conflict and post-conflict situations if it promotes human rights principles and recognizes in its programs the ways in which women and men, and human rights defenders are differently affected in conflict situations, including issues related to gender based violence.

Anonymous from
Fri, January 11, 2013 at 08.55 pm

Fragility and conflict embody the causes of the most acute inequity and vulnerability; and children are particularly vulnerable to the violence, neglect and abuse that arise.
The MDGs have not been effective in fragile contexts, causing 1.5 billion people to miss out on a decade of concerted international action on poverty reduction. Prioritising peacebuilding and statebuilding in a new set of development goals is a way to reach these most vulnerable and marginalised communities.
World Vision argues that by targeting fragile contexts, the post-2015 development goals can capture the pursuit of equity with the same clarity that the MDGs brought to the reduction of poverty. Targets that address inclusion, accountability and effectiveness could be added to each of the new goals. A further goal addressing inclusive governance could target social inclusion, justice and peace.
By naming governance, peace, participation and justice as the key challenges for equity in development for those living in fragile contexts, it may be that things that were previously thought to be beyond the reach of international cooperation will become another full part of the international development effort. Bringing these elements into a new set of goals is not revolutionary: the Millennium Declaration reminds us that they have long been recognised as essential to good development.
To promote responses to fragility in an enhanced set of development goals, as the surest pathway to equity in development, World Vision recommends to:
• Create a goal on inclusive governance that targets inclusion, justice and peace.
• Add targets on government planning, budgeting and systems, and civil participation to the successors to the existing goals 1–7.
• Add targets on donor accountability for civil participation and support for government planning, and on global cooperation for cross-border influences to the successor to the existing goal 8.
Furthermore, donors, governments and civil society organisations should begin to collaborate on shared approaches to participatory measurement of progress against the new goals.

Anonymous from
Fri, January 11, 2013 at 08.44 pm

The new framework should clearly recognise the particular vulnerabilities for the poor in conflict and post-conflict settings. It should create mechanisms for targeted international support and solidarity to protect vulnerable and marginalised groups in conflict situations including the responsibility of the international community to ensure that the international human rights framework is respected and upheld under all circumstances.

Joseph Schechla from
Fri, January 11, 2013 at 08.18 pm

Incorporate the principles and support processes of transitional justice (preservation of memory/records, accountability, reparations for victims as defined in A/RES/60/147, institutional reform and satisfaction of victims).

HLRN
Habitat International Coalition
Housing and Land Rights Network

Anonymous from
Fri, January 11, 2013 at 06.12 pm

The costs of armed violence are diverse and far-reaching. Armed violence affects all societies, cities and population groups at all income levels. According to recent estimates, at least 526,000 people die annually directly due to armed violence.7 But this is just the tip of the iceberg. For every person violently killed, there are many more non-fatal injuries with significant long-term costs.These include long-term hospitalization, extensive rehabilitation and
care, negative impacts on household investment decision-making, disruption in social and community relations and severe gender inequalities. In many countries, the act or threat of large-scale armed violence causes both people and money to flee. As such, armed violence can result in the loss of fixed assets, the disruption of formal and informal labour markets, reductions in (or absence of) foreign and domestic investment, declining tax revenues and diminishing service-delivery capacities. In short, armed violence undermines development.

The concept of armed violence encompasses a wide spectrum of conflict, post-conflict, crime-related and
ostensibly peaceful settings. Hence the future framework should not target conflict situations only and include peace and security as preconditions for 'development' in all situations.

It's important to work towards the measurable reduction of armed violence as well as on the capacities to deal with the issues and the causes of violence.

Possible specific overall goals could look like:

* Reduce the number of people physically harmed from armed violence
* Reduce the number of people and groups affected by armed violence
* Strengthen institutional responses to prevent and reduce armed violence

For more details see: http://www.genevadeclaration.org/measurability/monitoring-armed-violence...

Elaine Geyer-Allely from
Fri, January 11, 2013 at 05.08 pm

WWF International
One element of conflict situations that has been underestimated in the past is the role of natural resources, both as the source of conflict where resources are valuable and/or scarce, but also as “currency” to fuel corruption and armed conflict in different regions of the world. Many of the world’s poorest communities are those directly reliant on access to natural resources for their livelihoods and well-being, a vulnerability exacerbated in conflict situations.
In many recent armed conflicts in Africa, for example, licit and illicit exploitation of natural resources such as land, timber, minerals and wildlife have triggered, intensified or sustained conflicts (See for example J. Gettleman, “Elephants Dying in Epic Frenzy as Ivory Fuels Wars and Profits”, NYT 3 September 2012). Control over natural resources and their revenues often stay in the hands of a small elite for personal enrichment or to build political/military power, and is not used for broader development of the country or to lift the poor out of poverty. Conflicts can lead to criminal activities such as illegal logging, wildlife poaching and smuggling, and large-scale overexploitation of forest and fishery resources that have devastating impacts on national and individual well-being.
The Peace Parks and Transfrontier Conservation Areas in Southern Africa are examples of initiatives that could be taken into account in broader peacemaking efforts, and fostering dialogue and transforming tensions and insecurities into peaceful relationships among nations. Accordingly, states, regional organizations and the international community could benefit from addressing issues related to achieving and sustaining peace and the impact of conflict as well as disasters. Conflict and disaster resilience could be included an “enabling factor” in sector-oriented goals.

Anonymous from
Fri, January 11, 2013 at 05.03 pm

Faith communities remain active in conflict-affected regions long after most other development actors have left, and in many such contexts faith communities are the only civil society organisations. For example in South Sudan the Episcopal Church of Sudan remained active through the recent conflict, both in providing shelter and support for people fleeing the conflict, providing services where possible, and notably engaging in the peace process. Similarly in Pakistan, the United Church of Pakistan has provided services in some of the troubled and conflict affected tribal areas. Our experience is that there is a need for the international community to recognise the need for early engagement in development work in conflict-affected communities, for close working with the faith communities which may be the only service providers, and for engagement of women, young people and faith communities in the process of peace and reconciliation.
Our partners in the Pacific have pointed to the effective mediation programmes the Church has run, utilising traditional community strategies and adapting them to meet modern day challenges such as disputes over land rights due to logging invasions that lead to conflict. Strengthening the existing peace, justice and reconciliation work done by faith communities in the Pacific would be important, including the introduction of inclusive and sustainable livelihood programmes so that people work collaboratively together and learn to leave peacefully with each other.

Anonymous from
Fri, January 11, 2013 at 04.43 pm

The post-2015 framework needs to reflect the challenges of the poor living in conflict and post-conflict situations, but also needs to take into account the challenges faced by the poor who are vulnerable to environmental hazards. In conflict and post-conflict settings, there is limited access to essential services, such as health, education and water, sanitation and hygiene facilities – all of which are critical to lifting people out of poverty. In conflict and post-conflict settings, it is also essential to consider the specific needs of especially marginalised and vulnerable populations and ensure that as services are provided and developed the needs of these groups, such as people with disabilities, are not left out. Conflict situations, as has been seen in the experiences of Liberia and Sierra Leone, can increase the number of people with disabilities, and so it is important to ensure that the specific health, education and social needs of these individuals are met when reconstructing a country’s services and infrastructure in post-conflict settings.

Similar issues also affect disabled people living in settings that are vulnerable to environmental hazards and when disasters occur. The lack of data on numbers of people with disability, lack of accessible information, and lack of involvement of disabled people in emergency preparedness planning means that often disabled people are either forgotten or unable to benefit from relief packages. For example, following the Asian tsunami in 2004, in Indonesia and Thailand daily food and water rations were supplied through displacement camps that were inaccessible to disabled people, while in Aceh Barat an assessment of five temporary living centres found no measures to make the camps accessible to disabled people. Of the three latrines (for 5,000 people), none were accessible for those with physical or visual impairments.

The issues faced in reconstruction and rehabilitation of communities affected by conflict or by environmental disasters are similar and clearly highlight the need to take into account the needs of disabled people. In a new framework it is therefore important to address the specific challenges of conflict and post-conflict settings, but this should be done in a way that ensures the most vulnerable populations, such as people with disabilities, are not excluded from accessing essential services and fulfilling their economic and social development potential.

Anonymous from
Fri, January 11, 2013 at 04.09 pm

Marginalised communities exist in all countries, but are particularly invisible in fragile states and difficult environments, despite their needs being even greater than the general population.

The aggregate global targets of the MDGs were unachievable for many countries that started out with higher numbers of people in need – many of these fragile states. This is why it is essential to set targets nationally or according to local context.

Understanding the social, economic, political and historical context is particularly crucial when working in fragile states and difficult environments. In these environments there is often little – if any – health information available. As national-level data generally bears little resemblance to the situation faced by marginalised communities, it is crucial that data is disaggregated.

Adopting a rights-based approach is essential in fragile states and difficult environments due to the systematic violations of rights which accompany political, economic and social collapse. Such an approach includes: expressed linkage to rights; accountability; empowerment; participation; and non-discrimination and attention to marginalised groups.

The benefits of supporting health systems as a whole in developing countries – rather than disease specific vertical interventions – are increasingly recognised, and this is particularly crucial in fragile states and difficult environments where capacity is limited. It is also important that marginalised communities are reached, not just because they are in most need of assistance, and are generally ignored, but because by targeting support to marginalised areas and tackling the challenges of how to provide effective services to those that are the most difficult to reach, there will be a trickle-up effect, as all communities along the ‘marginalisation’ continuum will benefit from improved service delivery.

Anonymous from
Fri, January 11, 2013 at 04.04 pm

As no fragile or conflict affected state has met a single MDG target, building the capacity of conflict and post-conflict countries to achieve any goals must be prioritised. The new framework must reflect the Peace Building and State Building (PBSB) goals agreed in the New Deal at Busan and other credible peace building frameworks. It must place emphasis on the active and meaningful involvement of communities as well as Governments in the design and operation of peace building, state building, service delivery and disaster risk reduction strategies

The way the new framework is monitored offers an important opportunity to address the drivers of conflict. New targets should be tracked with data disaggregated by sex, age and geography (including rural-urban location), ethnicity, religion, caste and income group. This is essential for looking across the new goals to analyse the fairness of access to resources, services and benefits. Doing so is crucial, because fairness, and the perception of it between different social groups, is very often a key driver of enmities that fuel conflict.

Anonymous from
Fri, January 11, 2013 at 03.42 pm

Violence and conflict are rooted in human insecurity and deprivations. Thus, peace and security are not simply the absence of war and conflict—they are the presence of justice and decency and social and economic equity, both within and between countries. A human rights and developmental approach to security requires that we deal the sources of persistent threats - such as hunger, disease, poverty, inequality and repression. Increasingly there are conflicts over access to and control of natural resources including land and water.

The new development framework must be democratic and equitable so its fruits are shared by all. It also requires that states change their approach to achieving security, which currently focuses on military containment. The world’s global powers spend more on defense than on development assistance to poor countries. The new development framework must promote an inclusive development process which explicitly recognizes the rights of all socio-cultural groups, minorities, indigenous peoples, and religions over their natural resources and respects their right to define their development aspirations. It must also encourage states to rechannel military expenditure to social expenditure and adopt policies of disarmament of nuclear weapons and weapons of mass destruction.

The Campaign for People’s Goals for Sustainable Development is a global campaign of grassroots organizations, labor unions, social movements and non-governmental organizations and other institutions committed to promoting new pathways to the future we want. The full campaign statement is available at: www.iboninternational.org/cpgsd.

Saferworld from
Fri, January 11, 2013 at 03.10 pm

For the post-2015 framework to overcome conflict and violence, it must address the drivers that in context after context cause conflict and violence around the world. In September 2012, analysis by Saferworld [1] found considerable agreement among six contemporary peacebuilding frameworks on the priorities for sustainable peacebuilding – but also found that these priorities are largely absent from the existing MDGs. A November 2012 paper from Saferworld goes deeper into the evidence on this. It asks two questions: ‘what are the key challenges to peacebuilding and development in conflict-affected and fragile contexts?’ and ‘what works in addressing them?’ The multi-country studies reviewed by Saferworld for this paper reaffirm a similar set of key issues to those highlighted in Saferworld’s September briefing:
• the ability of states to manage revenues and perform core functions effectively and accountably
• transparency, accountability and controls on corruption
• fair access to social services and resources
• voice and participation in decision-making
• reducing violence and making the public feel secure
• ending impunity and ensuring access to justice
• shared economic growth and opportunities for decent livelihoods
• ensuring equality between social groups – especially between men and women
• reconciliation and tolerance between different social groups [2]

On each of these key issues, our research points to the evidence provided by multi-country research and accepted in multilateral policy discourse to illustrate what works in addressing these key issues. High Level Panel members should take this evidence into account as they consider priority issues that should be included in the post-2015 framework.

[1] Saferworld, ‘Approaching post-2015 from a peace perspective’, (2012), http://www.saferworld.org.uk/resources/view-resource/680 .
[2] Saferworld, ‘Addressing conflict and violence from 2015 - Issue Paper 2: What are the key challenges? What works in addressing them?’ (November 2012). http://www.saferworld.org.uk/resources/view-resource/708 .

Astrid Thomassen from
Fri, January 11, 2013 at 03.05 pm

Education is always political. However education that is focusing on democratisation and human rights does. Education and democracy is highly correlated. Access to education must be for all, and a high number of private schools might contradict this correlation.

Anonymous from
Fri, January 11, 2013 at 02.32 pm

CARE International believes that the post-2015 framework must:
• Account for and address the critical needs of millions of people that are living in emergency contexts.
• Ensure that gender equality is a central part of the strategies for response and that the needs of women and girls are met in emergency contexts, in particular maternal and reproductive health needs.
• Effectively link emergency relief and longer-term development.
• Recognize that putting functioning disaster risk reduction and response structures, as well as building poor people’s resilience to rebound from the effects of disasters, is critical to achieving long-term sustainable development.

The post-2015 framework needs to address the needs of poor people living in insecure contexts, with special attention to women and girls. CARE International believes that the post-2015 framework should:
• Address explicitly issues of peace, conflict and security.
• Include conflict/peace issues of relevance to advancing goals related to women, peace and security as a matter of both “process” and “content”. Involving women in processes linked to aid and wider political processes in conflict is essential if women’s rights and concerns are going to be addressed. As such, processes need to be designed in a way that enables meaningful participation of women, including at grassroots level. There are also specific substantive content issues – such as gender-based violence or women’s access to justice – which need to be addressed as they are often neglected in aid and wider political relations in conflict countries. In this regard, emphasis needs to be placed on achieving further progress on implementing UN Security Council Resolution 1325 and related resolutions. Further, women’s and girls’ maternal and reproductive health needs must be addressed in conflicts and post-conflict response activities.
• Explore the incorporation of the “New Deal for Engagement in Fragile States”, agreed at the Busan High Level Forum on Aid Effectiveness, and in particular, the focus on the model of “mutual accountability” for achieving better development outcomes between donors and states in conflict.
• Consider country-level, context-specific priorities and strategies, and mechanisms and processes to take action at this level.

Anonymous from
Fri, January 11, 2013 at 02.30 pm

CARE International believes that the post-2015 framework must:
• Account for and address the critical needs of millions of people that are living in emergency contexts.
• Ensure that gender equality is a central part of the strategies for response and that the needs of women and girls are met in emergency contexts, in particular maternal and reproductive health needs.
• Effectively link emergency relief and longer-term development.
• Recognize that putting functioning disaster risk reduction and response structures, as well as building poor people’s resilience to rebound from the effects of disasters, is critical to achieving long-term sustainable development.

The post-2015 framework needs to address the needs of poor people living in insecure contexts, with special attention to women and girls. CARE International believes that the post-2015 framework should:
• Address explicitly issues of peace, conflict and security.
• Include conflict/peace issues of relevance to advancing goals related to women, peace and security as a matter of both “process” and “content”. Involving women in processes linked to aid and wider political processes in conflict is essential if women’s rights and concerns are going to be addressed. As such, processes need to be designed in a way that enables meaningful participation of women, including at grassroots level. There are also specific substantive content issues – such as gender-based violence or women’s access to justice – which need to be addressed as they are often neglected in aid and wider political relations in conflict countries. In this regard, emphasis needs to be placed on achieving further progress on implementing UN Security Council Resolution 1325 and related resolutions. Further, women’s and girls’ maternal and reproductive health needs must be addressed in conflicts and post-conflict response activities.
• Explore the incorporation of the “New Deal for Engagement in Fragile States”, agreed at the Busan High Level Forum on Aid Effectiveness, and in particular, the focus on the model of “mutual accountability” for achieving better development outcomes between donors and states in conflict.
• Consider country-level, context-specific priorities and strategies, and mechanisms and processes to take action at this level.

Anonymous from
Fri, January 11, 2013 at 01.19 pm

A new framework that addresses resilience to crises including the challenges of conflict and post-conflict situations, will have resilience-builidng programmes which understand the local power dynamics and the complex nature of risk in socio-ecological systems, understanding and managing risks, mitigating unintended negative consequences, and managing trade-offs in a clear, conscious and fair way. Specifically, resilience-building programmes improve people’s social, ecological and economic assets and services base. Where possible, resilience building programmes aim to contribute to the prevention of violence and promotion of non-violent and participatory dispute resolution at all levels.

There must be an explicit focus on the rights of women and marginalised people to enjoy peace and stability, to live without fear of violence. By definition, there is no peace and stability if women are routinely physically or sexually violated. It is now more dangerous to be a woman than to be a soldier in conflicts. It is also critical to note that GBV continues as a tactic of oppression after ‘conflict’ is over. 33% of ever married women in Liberia experienced violent assault from husbands or partners in last 12 months. Specific priorities are: preventing violence and responding to it by ensuring access to justice.
Women are in addition catalysts for broader societal peace and stability building. They must be included in negotiation of peace accords and in building resilient states.

There is also a need to work with and build civil society as the key mechanism to hold government to account, defend rights and advocate for change. There are additional benefits of working with women’s rights organisations: a new study on violence against women across 70 countries and covering four decades found that strong and autonomous feminist movements are the key to change, making more of a difference than the number of women politicians or wealth of a country.

Anonymous from
Fri, January 11, 2013 at 10.19 am

Conflict and poverty go hand in hand. Conflict destroys development gains and makes it harder for people to escape poverty.

People vulnerable to crisis and in poverty live lives where vulnerability, poverty, risk are interlinked.) Crisis pushes people into poverty, negates development gains and entrenches poverty among people already poor. Security is a top priority for people vulnerable to crisis.

The international response however is predicated and managed in silos where people are considered to need humanitarian or development or security responses and many other subcategories too (Reference: GHAs & INCAF report on transition financing http://www.devinit.org/wp-content/uploads/resource-docs/Transition-Finan...). On top of this international and domestic responses often operate in ignorance of each other.

International resources have a particular role to play in reaching populations that may not be priorities for their governments or where the state does not have capacity.

The Framework should explicitly promote transparency on all resources in conflict-affected countries, including resources related to extractive industries and military/security expenditures.

Séverin SINDIZERA from
Fri, January 11, 2013 at 09.12 am

Je m'appelle SINDIZERA Séverin Directeur de l'orgarnisation des peuples autochtones dénommée Association pour l'intégration et Développement Durable au Burundi-AIDB, Burundi.


C’est meilleure d’élaborer un plan d’action et stratégique de ce nouveau programme que doivent suivre tous les gouvernements.

Anonymous from
Fri, January 11, 2013 at 08.11 am

Political efforts such as the Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development, the Oslo Commitments on Armed Violence, as well as the World Bank report 2011 have all shown how violence impacts on development.

A new framework should not limit its indicators and Goals to conflict and post-conflict situations but look at violence indicators more broadly. Latin American countries as an example, demonstrate clearly that armed violence (not only due to conflict or post conflict) prevents people to access schools and hospitals, kills mainly young man hence hampering economic development of families and entire communities, fuels illegal traffic of weapons and drugs and perpetuates social inequalities.

A future goal on this issue should take as the main concern protection of people from violence, in particular armed violence, whether poor or rich, in conflict but also non conflict situations.

Specific indicators for a goal on violence should be developed in consultation with all relevant stakeholders to overcome some of the main challenges related to this issue. Countries are often reticent to monitor and produce data on this issue because it is considered sensitive. It is therefore key that an open dialogue on violence indicators be organized in order to elaborate indicators that are helpful to understand and address the issue of violence.

Examples of indicators that can be used to assess violence include indicators on physical manifestation of violence on individuals such as domestic violence rates; homicide and injury rates to show number of people physically affected by armed violence (including conflict) disaggregated by age, gender, weapon used; refugees and number of displaced people; unlawful detention rates; ownership of guns and weapons in society.

It is important to stress though that factors which facilitate peace may be different from those which render conflict and violence likely. Understanding the drivers of peace is crucial for preventing conflict and violence recurrence or for establishing conditions that make conflict unlikely even amidst periods of political, social or economic turmoil. Indicators to assess drivers of peace can be found for example in the Global Peace Index.

Anonymous from
Fri, January 11, 2013 at 06.37 am

In order to reflect the challenges that are faced by the poor living in conflict and post conflict situations, the new framework quite simply put, needs to have the people most affected involved in the deliberations, discussions, and most importantly, in the establishment of its statutes and regulations at every step of its creation process. Only then can a true and dynamic framework be established.

Anonymous from
Fri, January 11, 2013 at 05.07 am

Conflict and post-conflict settings require a great deal of investment in social cohesion to recover the bonds that are shattered in conflict. Short-term solutions that produce some level of physical outcome struggle to be sustainable in the long term because there is little or no investment in the social institutions to maintain and build on the emergency aid that eventer conflict and post-conflict settings. Investment in community organization and specific technologies of community organization, such as women-led savings, and community-led information collection, are significant ways of sustaining capital investments.

Anonymous from
Thu, January 10, 2013 at 10.22 pm

Conflict and post-conflict settings both increase the prevalence of poverty and deepen the degree of poverty for those who were already compromised economically. In fact, the poorest of the poor may view themselves as chronically in conflict situations at the human survival level. With poverty or deeper poverty come increased needs and vulnerabilities around basic lifelines such as nutrition, clothing, housing and healthcare. A vulnerability reduction index would offer a leading and fast moving indicator that could presage later improvements in cash based poverty assessments. Families with members who have significant longstanding vulnerabilities (e.g., children with disabilities) could be recognized for their higher complex and compounded vulnerabilities which would, in turn, permit focusing of efforts in ways that might simultaneously address multiple vulnerabilities. The degree to which the poorest of the poor, including especially those in conflict situations, achieve security at multiple levels is a sound measure of societal well-being and resilience.

Nadine Rose Carole from
Thu, January 10, 2013 at 09.25 pm

Although the poor are the most vulnerable in conflict situations, and have the greatest difficulties in rebuilding their lives once the conflict is over, greater attention needs to be given to the fact that most people living in poverty, especially those living in extreme poverty, live in conditions that are very similar to conflict settings even in times of ‘peace’. Discussions of armed conflict, violence, peace and security, as understood in the international context, do not take into account the reality of the lives of the poorest and more excluded people, even though it is not possible to live in peace while living under the inhumane conditions of extreme poverty.

The true dimensions of extreme poverty have been trivialized, often being described solely in terms of a lack of food, income, housing and education. When persons living in such conditions are asked about their lives, another reality emerges: an existence characterized by acts of violence carried out in tandem with the denial of fundamental rights. Material deprivation reduces people to mere survival; insecurity, both environmental insecurity and violence, causes families to break up, to lose their properties and their lives; exploitation robs people of their potential; humiliation, exclusion and contempt reach a point at which people living in extreme poverty are not recognized as human beings.

The first step in such situations is to create the conditions to break the silence about the resulting violence and the efforts of people to resist its impact.

However, those who live in violent circumstances cannot break the silence alone. They know that speaking out as an act of resistance can be turned against them. A collective and sustained effort to enable each person to speak out is necessary to build understanding and a fair analysis of the situation and the responses needed.

People living in extreme poverty and those who are the most affected by conflicts need to have the opportunity to voice their concerns, contribute their knowledge and be part of the solution. The daily efforts they do to build their communities and work toward a peaceful society need to be recognized and built upon.

Anonymous from
Thu, January 10, 2013 at 07.59 pm

L’incidence continue de la crise économique et financière atteste la nécessité en temps voulu un appui régional et international ciblé pour compléter les efforts faits par les pays les moins avancés pour renforcer leur capacité de résister aux chocs économique pour en atténuer les effets, il faut par conséquent recourir aux dispositifs et mesures existants d’intervention en cas de crise pour apporter rapidement un appui ciblé et suffisant aux pays les moins avancés. Il convient également de se pencher sur le coût humain de ces crises.
Il est pris note de la résolution 64/291 de l’Assemblée Générale en date du 27 juillet 2010 sur la sécurité humaine.
S’agissant que les crises économiques, les pays les moins avancés et leur partesnaires de développement prendront les mesures suivantes.
- Mesures à prendre par les pays les moins avancés :
• Elaborer des stratégies nationales d’atténuation des risques en vue de réduire leur vulnérabilité aux crises économiques, ou les renforcer le cas échéant ;
• Mettre en place des dispositifs nationaux d’adaptation aux crises et d’atténuation des effets en vue de réduire leur vulnérabilité aux crises économiques.
- Mesures à prendre par les partenaires de développement
• Fournir un appui financier et technique aux stratégies d’atténuation des risques des pays les moins avancés, notamment aux dispositifs nationaux d’atténuation des effets des crises et de résilience pour, renforcer leur capacité de faire face aux conséquences des crises économiques ;
• Continuer d’appuyer les plans et dispositifs du fonds monétaire international (FMI), de la Banque mondiale et des Banques régionales de développement visant à fournir des prêts à des conditions favorables et des subventions aux pays les moins avancés conformément et aux règles de ces institutions ;
- Mesures conjointes
• Adopter et appliquer des politiques et des règlements pour orienter le secteur privé pour en faire un acteur responsable.

Anonymous from
Thu, January 10, 2013 at 06.10 pm

Include exception clauses, such that areas in conflict can still aim for the goals of the framework - but perhaps at a lower rate. Also possibly instigating consultation between countries seen to be succeeding against the framework and those coming out of conflict, so best practice can be shared (wherever possible or appropriate). This would allow the most chance of meeting the goals of the framework for even countries in or post conflict.

Anonymous from
Thu, January 10, 2013 at 05.09 pm

Beyond 2015 is a global civil society campaign of +570 organisations from 95 countries aiming to influence the creation of a post-2015 development framework that succeeds the MDGs.
The post-2015 framework should adopt a different approach to its predecessor in order to contribute to genuine political, social, economic, environmental and developmental progress towards sustainable peace, an essential pre-requisite to poverty eradication. The framework should address multiple and interlinked factors that drive conflict and prevent the development of resilience against natural disasters and environmental change.

Long-term sustainable development, which includes these multiple factors, can only be delivered by a framework which recognises that the relationship between people and their governments is critical, and that the development of national and local institutions to manage conflict, build resilience to disasters and provide essential services must include all sections of society, including those most affected by poverty and injustice.

We believe the post-2015 framework should:

• Be a global overarching framework which has the flexibility to be pursued according to the individual circumstances of each country or region, reflecting the local dimensions of each
• Emphasise the active and meaningful involvement of communities as well as Governments in the design and operation of peacebuilding, state building, service delivery and disaster risk reduction strategies
• Place responsibility on each international intervention to respond to the diverse needs of the population regardless of their sex, age, caste, ability, ethnicity etc and ensure an inclusive and participatory approach in the design, delivery and evaluation of programmes
• Address resilience against conflict, violence and disaster through the promotion of active civic participation, responsiveness, accountability, protection of vulnerable groups and participation of people in decision making
• Recognise the challenges of meeting human development needs in conflict and disaster-affected countries and ensure that development actors are prepared to address these
• Build on existing efforts to improve the development progress in fragile states such as Peacebuilding and Statebuilding goals (PSGs) agreed in the New Deal at Busan and improve resilience to disasters based on outcomes from the Hyogo Framework for Action

ICAE Secretariat from
Thu, January 10, 2013 at 04.28 pm

In fragile and conflict ridden states it is important that the different actors of international cooperation support and contribute to legislation in favor of the poor population. Donors should support CSOs at national level as their development partners in activities and programs and it is of paramount importance that donors insist that governments fulfill their human rights obligations in conflict and post-conflict settings. A post-2015 agenda should acknowledge the differential and disproportional political and social changes and the impact of armed conflict and complex humanitarian emergencies on the lives and rights of women and adolescents. First and foremost, a new framework must address the gaps in knowledge about the magnitude and nature of the challenges faced by women and adolescents. This needs to be followed by a close examination of how existing policy and norms are applied/ implemented on the ground. Advocacy and implementation of legal standards are needed to ensure equality, justice, reparation and guarantees of non-repetition of violations for women in conflict situations, as well as effective participation in peace processes and post conflict reconstructions. In addition, women and young people’s sexual and reproductive rights must be guaranteed, including sexuality education, access to varied choices of contraceptive methods and safe and legal abortion services. All governments should work towards implementation of UN Security Council Resolutions 1325,1820, 1888 and 1889 and work towards a ban on arms selling to countries engaged in armed conflict.

Anonymous from
Wed, January 9, 2013 at 12.57 am

Todas las personas pobres tienen innuerables conflictos físicos, emocionales o mentales. Sólo con las necesidades básicas satisfechas es más que suficiente: salud, vivienda, educación, trabajo, para generar sociedades que pueden modificar sus condiciones por sí mismas.

Pauline Rose from
Thu, January 3, 2013 at 06.02 pm

As part of monitoring progress using equity-based targets, progress should be assessed for countries affected by conflict, as well as parts of countries where conflict is rife. Using data from the World Inequality Database on Education, we find that in conflict-affected North Kivu province of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, for example, adolescents and young adults are twice as likely to have less than two years in school, in comparison with the national average – and poor females are three times as likely to be in this situation. This highlights the importance of putting in place special measures to reach those living in conflict situations to ensure another generation of children and young people are not denied their right to education.

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