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Ven, décembre 28, 2012 à 09.44 de l'après-midi


How can we universalize goals and targets while being consistent with national priorities and targets? 

¿Cómo se pueden establecer objetivos y metas universales que sean coherentes con las prioridades y los objetivos nacionales? 

Comment rendre universels les buts et objectifs de développement tout en restant cohérents avec les priorités et objectifs nationaux ?

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Anonymous from Array
Lundi, janvier 14, 2013 à 11.49 du matin

The recent debt and economic crises, and rising commodity prices indicate that in a globalized world, societies are far more interconnected. The impacts of economic shifts are no longer contained in one region but instead ricochet around the world. The geography of poverty is changing and the dividing lines between rich and poor are far less clear cut than in the 1990s. Differentiating between developing and developed countries with respect to progress on poverty alleviation is no longer appropriate; the Global North should be held as accountable as the Global South.
To reflect this reality, the future framework must remain global and all countries should be monitored for progress against the goals. If only developing countries are monitored, there will be little accountability for those experiencing poverty in high and middle-income countries, which make up a larger percentage of the global poor.
However, to remain relevant to all nations, the global goals should be easily translated into national priorities and targets that are relevant at country level. This will enable each country to take appropriate, proportionate action towards achieving the global framework. Differentiated national action plans with different indicators will also be able to reflect the impact that developed countries have on under-developed countries, thus ensuring that responsibility for delivering the framework does not rest only with the global South.

Anonymous from Array
sam, janvier 12, 2013 à 02.49 du matin

This should be the subject of discussion with countries in the design of the overall programme. These discussions should emphasize designing coherence between national and global goals. In part, such consultations should ensure adequate exploration how the two can fit synergistically. There is every reason to expect that they can be found to do so if the matter is given explicit attention at the outset with consideration about how goals are to be interpreted.

Local and democratic ownership must be at the core of a new development agenda while respecting internationally agreed human rights and standards. The post-2015 goals, targets and benchmarks should be designed to contain in-built flexibility to ensure that they can be locally defined by national governments based on their contextual priorities. Governments should support development actors’ (including women’s, youth, feminist organizations and movements) effective participation at local, national and international levels and at all stages of the development process (planning, implementing, monitoring and evaluating), as well as in setting and debating priorities and in aligning development and women’s human rights commitments.

Anonymous from Array
sam, janvier 12, 2013 à 02.12 du matin

Restless Development supports the position taken by Beyond 2015 which emphasises the need for a global development framework setting out universal goals and mutual obligations, ownership and accountability for all countries, such as the well-being of young people, but with national-level targets dependent on country context; addressing the individual issues that affect young people in different parts of the globe. For example, youth unemployment is a serious global phenomenon that all governments have a responsibility to address however, targets on unemployment must be informed by realistic assessments of national capacities for them to be meaningful and achievable.

Rob Wheeler from Array
sam, janvier 12, 2013 à 12.49 du matin

The new Goals and Targets should be universal in nature and as ambitious, holistic, and comprehensive as possible. Again the civil society listing developed during the Annual DPI/NGO Conference in Bonn, Germany provides a good set of goals to start with but we must focus on fully achieving all of the pre-requisites of living fully sustainably on our planet home as well, such as 100% renewable energy, phasing out the use of all toxic chemicals, eliminating all waste, fully restoring the natural environment, etc.

Then at the national and local level we should focus primarily on the specific means of achieving these universal goals and agree on a set of indicators that is applicable for each region and area all around the planet, developed collaboratively by all stakeholders in a cooperative manner.

Anonymous from Array
Ven, janvier 11, 2013 à 11.46 de l'après-midi

This time around, the framework must apply universally in rich and poor countries alike, being tailored and adaptable to different national and sub-national circumstances, but in service to and owned by poor and marginalized people anywhere and everywhere. While universal in application, the framework’s specific targets and metrics may vary to take into account different national realities and resource constraints (as long as human rights standards are not undercut in doing so). Under some goals, differentiated responsibilities may be identified for developing and industrialized countries, and for other relevant non-state or supra-state actors. One way of ensuring universally-applicable assessment of progress is to measure rates of progress and backsliding towards an agreed goal, as well as the policy efforts (sectorally, but also budget and fiscal policies) taken to reach such goals, something that was not taken into account in the current MDG framework.

-Center for Economic and Social Rights (CESR)

Luther-King Fasehun from Array
Ven, janvier 11, 2013 à 11.40 de l'après-midi

This universalization can be done by ensuring that basic goals aim at poverty-reduction; universal access to health care; economic growth; social equality; and environmental sustainability.

Anonymous from Array
Ven, janvier 11, 2013 à 11.38 de l'après-midi

Universality should also ensure that the new goals apply equally to developed and developing nations and that all have accountability for implementation, resourcing and reporting. Ensuring that national priorities and targets are consistent with universal goals and targets also requires building national ownership and examining the role of international financial institutions, including development banks.

Anonymous from Array
Ven, janvier 11, 2013 à 11.36 de l'après-midi

medsinUK Universal Health Coverage (UHC) is being considered to be a major part of the thematic consultation on health and this is an example of a concept that affects globally but can be tackled locally be different governments. UHC is the idea of equal access to healthcare around the world.There have been several papers submitted under the Health consultation run by the WHO and the World We want Web Platform that support the notion of UHC in post-2015. However these papers also detail the fact that there needs to be additional work to ensure that we dont try to solve this problem by simply throwing money at it but by paying attention to things such as the the Alma Ata declaration of 1978 and the discussions made at Rio+20. Both discussions outlined the idea that social, environmental and economical factors need to be dealt with alongside the idea of overarching idea of UHC. UHC is also absent in countries both high and low income alike. This means that using UHC in the framework will allow for inclusion of objectives that can be targeted everywhere.


European Youth Forum from Array
Ven, janvier 11, 2013 à 11.10 de l'après-midi

As a global framework, the Post-2015 development agenda should include goals that were defined and agreed globally and that respond to the global challenges, providing guidance to international and national policy-making. These goals should transferred into targets that are then differentiated according to the regional and national realities, with country-relevant targets and indicators set at national level, for greater accountability, monitoring and ownership.

National level priority setting should not undermine a rights based approach cannot be watered down at national or regional level. The fact that transition support from the richer countries needs to be provided for the poorer must be a key part in implantation of the MDGs but the role in alternative economic models developed locally should also be supported and not just models and technologies from developed countries enforced on others.

Anonymous from Array
Ven, janvier 11, 2013 à 10.58 de l'après-midi

Tomando en cuenta la especificidad de los objetivos nacionales para hacer enlace con aquellos que en común tienen un área prioritaria de atención en los Objetivos y metas universales. Así podría dividirse objetivos por área de atención: Pobreza en América Latina, Pobreza en África, Pobreza en Asia.

Anonymous from Array
Ven, janvier 11, 2013 à 10.39 de l'après-midi

Local and national sovereignty and democracy shall be at the core of new development strategies and models. The post-2015 goals, targets and benchmarks should be explicitly shaped by and grounded in human rights, including the principles of equality and non-discrimination while designed to contain in-built flexibility to ensure local and national adaptation according to their needs and priorities. Also, a key component of this balance shall be the consistent application of concepts of multiple responsibility, accountability and transparency by all actors involved.
Meaningful, well resourced and effective participation of social movements, peoples and diverse development actors are central to this end. A new framework should create necessary spaces and mechanisms to make sure well being of people and nature are included in setting and debating priorities. To this end, we urge specifically for the meaningful participation of women’s human rights activists in all aspects of this process. .
Finally, we propose that this new framework calls governments to expand accounting national methodologies and transition beyond existing indicators (such as GDP) so that new assessments of people´s actual experience of life, well being, sustainability and resilience are included (and still in line with universal human rights commitments).

Anonymous from Array
Ven, janvier 11, 2013 à 10.38 de l'après-midi

There should only be one set of global development goals, which must be based on the principle of universality and applicable to both developed and developing countries.

Goals and targets should take the broad approach of contraction and convergence, highlighting the benefits of sustainable living for rich and poor alike, drawing on real world case studies in geographically relevant areas to those countries.

Future development goals should contain demonstrably realistic and achievable targets, based on case studies of stretching best practice and in line with what science and morality tell us is necessary. This will make them credible for national state actors who are to implement the framework in practice.

BioRegional supports the UN System Task Team on the Post-2015 UN Development Agenda’s recommendations for a set of targets that could be monitored by statistically robust indicators. This will help to keep the focus on results, but also motivate the strengthening of statistical systems and use of quality data to improve policy design and monitoring by national governments and international organisations.

The UN is the only legitimate and representative global governance structure to lead and monitor the process in all countries, though national governments and their citizens must have primary ownership of and accountability for the framework and its delivery.

Anonymous from Array
Ven, janvier 11, 2013 à 10.36 de l'après-midi

Save the Children supports a post-2015 framework that is truly global, universally applied & inspires a strengthened & committed global partnership for development amongst all relevant actors.

Poverty reduction & human development are common goals, requiring actions from all development actors. The specific issues within these common goals are differentiated according to countries’ different stages of development. The framework should deliver action for the poorest & most marginalised people whichever country they are situated in. Thereafter, each country should commit to a national deliberative process, involving women, men & children which adapts the goals to make them relevant in their national context .

Anonymous from Array
Ven, janvier 11, 2013 à 10.11 de l'après-midi

Are goals the best method for achieving the eradication of poverty and/or the achievement of human rights? The new framework must acknowledge and address the differential impacts of economic and development policies on women, men, boys and girls, and on individuals and communities, taking into consideration issues related to class, race, gender, sexuality, language, disabilities, and regions. Human rights principles and approaches should be included in the foundation for the post-2015 framework.

Anonymous from Array
Ven, janvier 11, 2013 à 08.59 de l'après-midi

Global vs. national goal setting. Separate roadmaps threaten to lead to a fragmentation; it is critical to lay a common foundation. However, local contexts and needs must be prioritized. Global goals should be translated into specific, local targets tailored to the economic, cultural, and social context.

The MDG framework could be stronger and more effective with the inclusion of sub‐goals that reflected regional goals, with a breakdown of specific targets and indicators. In the case of tuberculosis, given the nature of the pandemic (8.8 million new infections diagnosed and 1.4 million deaths each year), and its relationship with HIV co‐infection (25% of deaths among people living with HIV/AIDS are from TB), this was a lost opportunity to break down the key barriers that have prevented significant progress in combating this treatable and curable disease.

There must be ownership of new goals at national, regional, and global levels. By setting global ‘one size fits all’ targets, the MDGs undermined local ownership. While a global framework is vital, within it there should be scope for individual governments to set their own milestones, specific targets, monitoring, and metrics. This view is reflected in the UN System Task Team’s report, which outlines an integrated framework of universal goals tailored to national contexts based on the principles of human rights, equality and sustainability, and seeking to deliver development across the four pillars of inclusive social development, environmental sustainability, inclusive economic development, and peace and security.

Indicators for equity. Indicators should not be based on national averages as they mask systematic inequities within countries. Indicators should be based on disaggregated data by gender, socioeconomic status and other demographic or geographic variables to reveal inequities.

Smarter targets. The targets must be grounded in ensuring inclusive development that benefits all, including the most vulnerable. Two approaches could produce better targets: 1) anchoring future goals in a human rights framework could focus greater attention on ensuring equitable progress, whether in access to childhood vaccines or to education; 2) building the capacity of all countries to report on their progress using disaggregated data broken down by gender, age, family income, location, disability, and other factors would help ensure progress is benefiting the poorest and most vulnerable.

Anonymous from Array
Ven, janvier 11, 2013 à 08.56 de l'après-midi

The right architecture for an enhanced set of goals will be essential to reach the most vulnerable children. The current goals are strong on common international targets but weak on country- or subnational-level interpretation of those targets. This dynamic must be reversed, with continued ambition for the global goals but stronger mandates and accountability for governments to use the best local information to set national/regional-level targets that will more effectively reach the most vulnerable members of their populations. In the push for a universal set of goals, such a context-driven approach will make meaningful progress possible for all countries.
Incorporating context-driven targets into the post-2015 will better address their particular needs and contexts.

Anonymous from Array
Ven, janvier 11, 2013 à 08.47 de l'après-midi

The goals need to be broad and sufficiently holistic while being based on internationally agreed human rights and development values. An effective way to ensure a harmonious blend of universality and consistency with national priorities and targets is to base the new framework on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the Millennium Declaration.

Joseph Schechla from Array
Ven, janvier 11, 2013 à 08.25 de l'après-midi

Too broad a question without a hypothetical case or example.

Theoretically, few major contradictions would arise if the universalized goals reasonably reflect common priorities as intended. The norms are also common denominators so minimal as to reconcile with rational statecraft in any given system. In the abstract, the universalized priorities typically uphold the state and interstate system.

If a priority question arises about a group discriminated against, a superfluous megaproject, or scarce resources for essential goods and services, the international system also proffers guidance, means and international cooperation obligations to achieve rational statecraft within the norms as developed. A contradiction between national and universalized priorities, therefore, suggests an anomaly within the normative framework, and the political economy and applicable human rights and humanitarian norms need to be analyzed in each case before answering this question.

In all cases, all parties should refer to the said norms and apply the over-riding principles of human rights, listen to the people, especially those who suffer.

Habitat International Coalition
Housing and Land Rights Network

Lyric Thompson from Array
Ven, janvier 11, 2013 à 06.32 de l'après-midi

Among the greatest achievements of the Millennium Development Goals was the emphasis on equality explicitly laid out in MDG 3 and implicitly throughout the framework. That has laid a prime foundation upon which to build in the next global framework, which should build upon the initial focus on equality and begin to transition from a focus on quantitative measure to one that also includes qualitative ones.

For instance, benchmarks on equitable access to education can be strengthened with a focus on achievement and quality of learning, as well as parity. We know, for example, that significant progress has been made since 2000 in regard to the number of girls in school, but many countries continue to struggle to improve actual learning and achievement. The World Bank’s paper on education, prepared for the ICPD Global Youth Forum, notes that while youth in developing countries are spending more time in school than ever before, learning levels remain extremely low.

This is a lesson learned from progress thus far: if indicators focus solely on quantitative figures, such as attendance and attainment, and not on qualitative factors, such as quality and achievement, the global community will not see equitable and useful access for all.

Key recommendations for moving forward in regard to improved quality and achievement in education can be found in The Bali Declaration, which is available online.
Specifically, the Declaration calls for the implementation and monitoring of sustainable gender-sensitive and transformative educational programs, by establishing gender-sensitive indicators and quality education systems and infrastructure, which should include qualified staff, appropriate facilities, tools (including technology), teaching materials and methods. It also calls for the international community to make adolescents and youth aware of their rights to staying healthy through formal and non-formal education, and to provide non-discriminatory, non-judgmental, rights-based, age appropriate, gender-sensitive health education including youth-friendly, evidence-based, comprehensive sexuality education that is context-specific.

These are just a few of the specific recommendations for education that the UN should consider as it develops the next iteration of global development goals. Following this example of quality-based outcomes can be of use across other thematic areas.

Anonymous from Array
Ven, janvier 11, 2013 à 06.27 de l'après-midi

HDF- Human Development Foundation

The MDGs and SDGs should be universal and should serve as a framework and guidelines for the countries.  Each country should adopt the MDGs while being consistent with their national priorities. The MDGs should be adopted and monitored at the regional level. In addition, each country should assess the needs and devise a plan based on their respective priorities. The assessment should include input from various stakeholders.  It is important to create alliances between various power structures and interest groups at different levels.

Fakhia Rashid
Executive Director of Human Development Foundation
Email: FRashid@HDF.com
Web: www.HDF.com

Anders Hylander from Array
Ven, janvier 11, 2013 à 06.20 de l'après-midi

Basing the post-2015 framework on the human rights framework will ensure that goals are universal as well as consistent with national priorities and targets.

For this to happen, Member States must act on their human rights obligations which they have agreed to and ratified in various human rights treaties. These include universal rights to social security, to water, to an adequate standard of living, to the right to education and the right to health services and must be delivered to all people across the life course.

Human rights treaties have clearly defined minimum obligations to realise the rights of the most marginalised and vulnerable people at all stages of the life-course. Any future development framework should at the very minimum reiterate these obligations.

States also have an obligation to put all available resources into realising economic, social, cultural civil and political rights for all. This can be used more positively to design programmes and justify budget allocations and be the basis for establishing clear benchmarks and indicators of progress for all.

HelpAge International calls on Member States to implement fully the human rights framework’s accountability mechanism which can and should be used more by the international development community to hold duty bearers accountable to their obligations. The Millennium Development Goals did not transfer the rights-based approach of the Millennium Declaration into the formulation of the current framework. This has marginalised the central issue of realising human rights and has resulted in poor progress in addressing structural barriers, such as discrimination.

The exclusion of older people in any part of the current MDG framework and indicator set has contributed to the on-going invisibility of older people throughout the variety of government and donor policy responses and programmes set up to help achieve the goals.

Anonymous from Array
Ven, janvier 11, 2013 à 05.16 de l'après-midi

One of the drawbacks of MDGs is its lack of consistency with national priorities and targets. However, at the same time, MDGs have greatly influenced Governments across the world in setting national developmental goals and targets, primarily for one reason – to comply with the requirements of the new aid architecture. So it became MDGs-led national prioritization rather than MDGs being consistent with national priorities. This tinkering is a major reason why majority of the countries have not been pursuing MDGs the way they would have pursued their own priorities. This doesn’t mean that MDGs-led national prioritization is bad per se. Thanks to MDGs for bringing development to the forefront in many countries.

As a first step, the new framework should identify common national priorities across countries and sectors. This identification would help in developing universal goals and targets that are in consistent with national priorities and have the automatic buy-in from the member states. However, it would be naïve to expect common priorities across countries in each sector. Hence, we suggest the following additional steps:
• Global norms on development and poverty: Powerful messages on development and poverty (e.g. world without poverty) that capture the imagination of people across the globe and translates into the world we want in, say, 10-15 years. This would force people and leaders to think about crucial issues like poverty, inequalities, etc. and align their priorities towards addressing these issues.
• Flexibility: Acknowledging and understanding differences is key to developing new framework. A voluntary goal-based framework should provide flexibility to member states in terms of time period, approach and resources to achieve global goals and targets. This will help in establishing consistency with national priorities.

Elaine Geyer-Allely from Array
Ven, janvier 11, 2013 à 05.09 de l'après-midi

WWF International
The goals should be universal to reflect the responsibilities of developed countries, emerging economies and developing nations. The goals can be differentiated according to national relevance and development progress (principle of Common but Differentiated Responsibility -- CBDR). The nature of responsibility will reflect factors such as levels of inequality of income distribution, gross national income, levels of resource consumption, etc. So that for example, developed countries address their impacts on development, human rights and environment in other parts of their world through reduced consumption, waste and pollution, fairer trade policies, and policy coherence for development. National targets can be developed within the context of global targets, perhaps based on a suite of nationally appropriate targets or through a bottom-up process of engagement by citizens in decision making.

Matt Simonds from Array
Ven, janvier 11, 2013 à 05.01 de l'après-midi

Response on behalf of International Trade Union Confederation (ITUC)

The framework should be built around global goals that would be accompanied by global monitoring effort with national-level targets and indicators. A global monitoring process would be universally applied and could track progress on the achievement of goals at the global level while national targets and monitoring efforts could vary in scope or timeline to respond to the national context and priorities.

The new goals must include targets and indicators formulated in a way that ensures accountability and as a result equity and access to the benefits of development to all groups, especially the most vulnerable and so far marginalised ones. Country-level targets and monitoring combined with fostering the use of disaggregated data might be one of the solutions. Ownership should be ensured across society not simply at the level of government, but also the citizens and civil society institutions - national and international ones.

The first and key step to ensuring the new agenda’s consistency with national priorities is ensuring that the process of its elaboration is effectively inclusive and its outcome is owned by the governments and citizens of all countries. The elaboration as well as the implementation and monitoring of the new agenda should be built on strong national democratic institutions and processes, including social dialogue. The agenda as well as the UN should foster the creation and maintenance of such national structures and processes where necessary.

Anonymous from Array
Ven, janvier 11, 2013 à 04.11 de l'après-midi

There should be a universal, high-level goal relating to health and wellbeing. One suggestion is that an overall goal could aim to reduce the number of years lost due to ill-health, disability or early death (disability-adjusted life years, or DALYs). This could be connected to a range of goals addressing the broad range of factors that affect mortality and morbidity. One of these should be specifically for universal health coverage. While health and wellbeing goes much further than providing health services, nevertheless the provision of and access to these services is a vital component of achieving the right to health for all.

Universal health coverage, i.e. access to an essential package of quality health services without the risk of financial hardship associated with paying for healthcare, remains elusive to many. A goal of universal health coverage should focus on providing access to marginalised groups and measuring this through the disaggregation of data.

It is however essential to set the targets nationally or according to local context. The aggregate global targets of the MDGs were unachievable for many countries that started out with higher numbers of people in need. So, if for example, maternal deaths were to be reduced by three quarters this was much bigger a challenge for a country with high mortality rates due to challenging environments such as a post-conflict situation. Countries should also set their own targets for reducing the gaps in health outcomes between different groups of their societies so that resource allocation may go towards the most marginalised.

In particular, progress should be measured not just at the aggregate level, but data needs to be disaggregated by various factors including income, gender and ethnicity, to make inequities visible and allow better targeting of vulnerable groups.

Anonymous from Array
Ven, janvier 11, 2013 à 03.56 de l'après-midi

The new framework requires collective ownership of the agenda with national targets that accurately reflect a county’s domestic capacities to achieve the goals set - and the assistance they need to provide to others to help them achieve their targets.

The core elements for the new framework as suggested in our response to question A3 affect all nations – to varying degrees – and so should form the basis of universal global goals. Coverage of the goals should extend to all national governments who should be accountable for owning and delivering the new framework supported by international bodies. Thus, underneath a set of universal goals should sit national level targets which are context-specific and acknowledge common but differentiated responsibilities in relation to the overarching global framework. For example:

● Under global goals on sustainability and equality, high income countries might have targets to reduce carbon emissions and consumption, invest in additional funding for climate finance as well as targets to address financial transparency and meeting its aid commitments
● Under global goals on access to health and education, middle income or emerging countries could consider targets to improve access to sanitation and to secure the completion of education, while on sustainability adopt targets for investment in green growth.
● As well as having specific health and education targets under global goals, lower income countries might also set targets to improve transparency in extractives or, under a global goal on inequality, set targets to increase the number of women active in public life or getting equal access to land and services.

Thorough scrutiny of the national context is required to identify priority targets in relation to the agreed universal global goals. However it is important that the process is not overly bureaucratic rather it should reinforce existing commitments as well as new efforts to address pressing development challenges. All agreed commitments should be publicised at global and national levels to allow for greater accountability. Meaningful data on the goals and targets gives citizens the opportunity to hold their leaders and national governments to account. An independent level of scrutiny and monitoring both at national and international settings will be required to ensure that reviews are regular, robust and credible.

Anonymous from Array
Ven, janvier 11, 2013 à 03.44 de l'après-midi

Goals and targets developed for the post 2015 agenda should be universal meaning applicable to all countries and not just developing countries but it must be coupled with the principles of equity and common but differentiated responsibility and respective capacity.

Each goal can be set according to common principles but targets, timelines, and indicators can be differentiated according to the country’s particular priorities and circumstances. This may mean that developing countries will prioritize the basic needs of their people while developed countries will take on more responsibility for addressing their contribution to unsustainable consumption.

The Campaign for People’s Goals for Sustainable Development is a global campaign of grassroots organizations, labor unions, social movements and non-governmental organizations and other institutions committed to promoting new pathways to the future we want. The full campaign statement is available at: www.iboninternational.org/cpgsd.

Saferworld from Array
Ven, janvier 11, 2013 à 03.16 de l'après-midi

Saferworld recognises the value of local, national and regional-specific planning and sequencing to identify how to reach global targets and measures on conflict – particularly as conflict sensitivity requires locally specific prioritisation and sequencing. Nonetheless it is still possible to have global targets that uphold shared progress towards universal commitments that are valid in all contexts. We feel that any framework designed according to the individual circumstances of each country or region would risk simply being ‘every country having its own MDGs’. This would not result in a clear, global framework at all so much as a collection of national plans – which most countries already have. If this was the case, the new global framework would risk losing its power in directing international attention and spending towards priority issues, as well as enabling conversations in-country about progressive targets set in the international sphere.

Although each context is different, tackling conflict and violence is in the shared interest of all countries. Our response to question A6 also clarifies that some key characteristics are hallmarks of sustainably peaceful societies the world over. It is these things that the new global framework should commit countries to and incentivise and measure countries’ progress towards.

It will not be enough to have aspirational goals and leave targets and indicators to be set at the national level. Instead, common targets can be created that still leave room for countries to benchmark where they are, prioritise and sequence according to what makes sense in context, receive assistance according to their need, and take credit for all progress made.

Anonymous from Array
Ven, janvier 11, 2013 à 02.08 de l'après-midi

Developmental challenges facing mankind are basically the same, although they may be more acutely manifest in some parts of the world than in others. Illiteracy, Morbidity, disability and premature mortality, poor infrastructure and communications, depletion of non-renewable resources, environmental degradation, gender disparity, abuse of human rights, inequalities in income and wealth distribution etc are fundamental problems facing all but a few nations. When consensus is built through consultation on the composition, the goals, targets, milestones to be achieved, the new framework should be translated into a viable global development plan or strategy. All member states – developed and developing countries - should be required to adopt and integrate relevant themes with nationally defined goals, targets and milestones into their own national development plans and strategies or equivalent institutional arrangements in force. This will strengthen the sense of national ownership and accountability. It is pertinent to point out that many developing nations did adopt and integrate relevant Millennium Development Goals into their national development strategies and have been striving hard to meet the targets.

Anonymous from Array
Ven, janvier 11, 2013 à 01.22 de l'après-midi

Though national circumstances vary, nearly all countries have signed onto the UDHR, the ICESCR and other important human rights documents. They therefore should prioritize policies and programmes that allow for the progressive realization of those rights. The core of these policies should be about investing in a long-term jobs creation strategy. The question of comparative advantage – while part of the discussion – is not the only part of this discussion. A jobs strategy centered around increasing manufacturing value added should be the core of any development strategy. The outcome of this would be a universal – albeit progressive – realization of economic, social and cultural rights. It is that outcome that can be measured, regardless of the details of the development strategy.

Bond Child Rights Working Group from Array
Ven, janvier 11, 2013 à 11.38 du matin

The world has changed since the MDGs were introduced: the majority of poor people no longer live in the least developed countries, but increasingly in middle-income countries and the world cannot be easily divided into the categories of aid donor or recipient in the way that was once believed possible. Inequity and inequality are issues which touch every country and human rights are applicable to all people in all countries. Issues such as the quality of education and learning outcomes, inclusive economic growth, access to affordable good quality healthcare, environmental sustainability, poverty, unemployment and violence are also present in almost every country around the world. The new development framework must therefore be universal, relevant for all people, no matter where they live.
To achieve this, the new framework should include a set of overarching global goals, with the flexibility built in for countries to set their own targets. This would mean that the targets would better reflect the local context.
Although the global goals would be more or less relevant to different countries and regions, this would enable a shared global framework with different roles and responsibilities for achieving the goals for different countries.

Anonymous from Array
Ven, janvier 11, 2013 à 11.25 du matin

Un cadre global est nécessaire pour poursuivre les efforts impulsés par les OMD et pour relever les défis mondiaux du développement, impliquant tous les pays.

Toutefois, il est essentiel que le cadre tienne compte des disparités de développement entre les pays et au sein des pays. Les objectifs globaux doivent être adaptés aux contextes nationaux, régionaux, locaux. Les priorités et les politiques locales doivent être définies en concertation avec les acteurs locaux, et notamment les collectivités locales.

Anonymous from Array
Ven, janvier 11, 2013 à 09.06 du matin

Chacun des pays les moins avancés traduira les politiques adoptées dans le cadre du nouveau programme de développement en mesures concertée et intégrant le Programme d’action dans les stratégies et plans de développement nationaux et sectoriels. Il est un fait admis que l’interdépendance croissante des économies nationales engendrées par la mondialisation et l’émergence des régimes fondés sur des règles dans les relations économiques internationales ont fait que la marge de manœuvre des politiques économiques nationales en particulier dans les domaines de commerce, de l’investissement et développement international, est désormais souvent rognée par des règles et des engagements internationaux et par des considérations ayant trait au marché mondial. Il appartient à chaque gouvernement de se demander comment arbitrer au mieux entre les avantages de l’acceptation des règles et engagements internationaux et les inconvénients de la perte de marge de manœuvre dans le choix des politiques.
L’action des pays les moins avancés devrait être complétée par des programmes, mesures et politiques mondiaux d’appui axés sur l’expansion de leurs perspectives de développement et tenant compte de l’évolution de leurs priorités nationales.

Séverin SINDIZERA from Array
Ven, janvier 11, 2013 à 09.14 du matin

Je m'appelle SINDIZERA Séverin Directeur de l'orgarnisation des peuples autochtones dénommée Association pour l'intégration et Développement Durable au Burundi-AIDB, Burundi.

Pour que les objectifs soient universels, il faut toujours concevoir des plans stratégiques que tous les pays doivent mise en œuvre et les organisations des peuples autochtones. En plus, il faut que les Etats mettent en application la déclaration des nations unies pour les droits des peuples autochtones, ratifient la convention 169 de l'organisation internationale du travail (OIT) et le protocole de Maputo.

Anonymous from Array
Ven, janvier 11, 2013 à 06.53 du matin

I'd surmise that the goal of achieving universal goals and targets is an elusive one. At the very best, your new framework
could have a set of objectives, collected from around the various regions of the world, with some being more common than others.

Anonymous from Array
Ven, janvier 11, 2013 à 05.09 du matin

The key is not to dictate specific policies and interventions for every country. Rather, the key is to articulate specific principles of institutional inclusion, as well as specific material outcomes. Slum Dwellers International’s experience is that when a framework of partnership between state institutions and community organizations is a pre-requisite for delivery, then it is much easier to develop mechanisms for delivery that are sustainable over the long term. These may play out differently across countries, especially in terms of the specific institutional designs that emerge from such a framework. However, the basic principles of inclusion and investment in community processes can be universalized.

Anonymous from Array
jeu, janvier 10, 2013 à 10.23 de l'après-midi

It is important to understand the difference between universal measures, universal goals and national priorities and targets. And, it is important to keep an eye on timelines. Universal measures are important to understanding progress among a population, in a country, in a region, or globally. Universal measures (as in measurement) allow for informed planning, debate and securing commitments. Universal goals are fixed points of qualitative and quantitative achievement that signify broad targets for general global improvements. National priorities reflect that member states that have many more challenges than they can manage to address at any point in time will need to exert sovereignty and apply resources selectively where they believe that they will do the most good. This is not an abdication of responsibility for other issues that the global community believes are important, but rather, informed approaches with a temporal priority for what can be achieved realistically. Creation of a validated and widely accepted human suffering index or essential life functions index might provide reasonable latitude for national variations that still reflected commitments to progress. In association with a very few core universal indicators, this could be a powerful characterization for many purposes.

jeu, janvier 10, 2013 à 09.05 de l'après-midi

Goals and targets are universal and are all needed, just that they depend on country priorities. For example Agricultural innovation and improved marketing options are highly needed in parts of Africa to overcome the main goals and targets meanwhile its not the case in other parts of the world, though all are essential.

Anonymous from Array
jeu, janvier 10, 2013 à 08.07 de l'après-midi

MDGs and national priorities

This should be the subject of discussion with countries in the design of the overall programme.
Have Resident Representatives of the UNDP carry results of initial expert-plus-informal consultations ‘preliminary thinking’ draft proposals to country governments, civil society, business entities and UN Country Teams as a foundation for participatory consultations, consensus building, and feedback to reflect the priority interests and needs of the respective countries. (This draft should reflect consideration of, attention to, the forces now driving the future of humanity and the threat of crises enroute. It should cover not only the priority goals but also the principles that will be followed regarding processes for the design of local action and for accountability.)
Use feedback to revise draft.
Take revised draft again to countries with specific concern to test/secure country ownership. Amend draft as needed but without loss of principles or of ability to address major change forces.

These discussions should emphasize designing coherence between national and global goals. In part, such consultations should ensure adequate exploration how the two can fit synergistically. There is every reason to expect that they can be found to do so if the matter is given explicit attention at the outset with consideration about how goals are to be interpreted.

Imane El Rhomri from Array
jeu, janvier 10, 2013 à 07.06 de l'après-midi

Imane El Rhomri, CoopMed-GEPandDO

No sería pertinente seguir “a ciegas” y “al pie de la letra” las prioridades nacionales porque se ha demostrado que, muchas veces, los planes estratégicos de los países receptores no reflejan de manera sistemática ni exhaustiva los aspectos transversales del desarrollo, es decir, el género, los derechos humanos, la diversidad cultural y el medio ambiente.

Muchos estudios y análisis feministas señalan que la igualdad de género es rara vez considerada como prioridad y/o incluida de manera sistemática en la planificación nacional del desarrollo. Alinearse a estos planes carentes de una visión y unos contenidos sensibles al género sería una gran negligencia y un freno al progreso en la igualdad de género, considerándose ésta como condición y objetivo del desarrollo.

Las consecuencias de una alineación “ciega al género” se acentúan a escala local dado que, hasta el momento, la alineación de los donantes se restringe a los planes integrales –si es que existen- o sectoriales a nivel nacional, pero no existe un mecanismo que garantice que las transferencias fiscales entre niveles descentralizados de la administración reflejen bien esta alineación. En esta cuestión de búsqueda de coherencia de la ayuda con las estrategias nacionales de desarrollo, es necesario apoyar la producción y uso de estadísticas sensibles al género y establecer indicadores sexo-específicos que sirvan para evaluar el impacto de las medidas de eficacia de la ayuda sobre las mujeres, tanto a nivel nacional, como regional y local.

A modo de conclusión, antes de alinearse o buscar la coherencia con las estrategias de desarrollo propias de los países receptores de la ayuda, hay que potenciar su toma en cuenta de las transversalidades del desarrollo y su elaboración de manera participativa, de modo que respondan a las necesidades prácticas y los intereses estratégicos de todas las personas, especialmente las personas que habitualmente se excluyen de los proceso de planificación del desarrollo. En este sentido, medidas como el establecimiento de incentivos a los países que elaboren planes participativos e inclusivos y/o que elaboren presupuestos sensibles al género –y en general, sensibles a los temas transversales del desarrollo- se presentan como una solución más adecuada.

Anonymous from Array
jeu, janvier 10, 2013 à 05.54 de l'après-midi

This will be achieved by rethinking traditional aid mechanisms. While universal goals are essential, the measures to achieve these goals must be determined by individual communities, and aid allocated according to these measures. This is accordance with the principle of subsidiarity, which dictates that solutions should come from the ground. When setting national priorities leaders must prioritize good governance and prevention of corruption in order to uphold the dignity of the person.

Anonymous from Array
jeu, janvier 10, 2013 à 05.08 de l'après-midi

Beyond 2015 is a global civil society campaign of +570 organisations from 95 countries aiming to influence the creation of a post-2015 development framework that succeeds the MDGs.
Beyond 2015 has a clear position: that the post-2015 development framework needs to be universally applicable. In order to address the global challenges we face, all countries, whether from global north or south, need to have obligations, ownership and accountability through the new framework. Global goals should be set aiming for the eradication of extreme poverty by addressing its root causes. Contextualised national targets are needed for developed and developing countries (inspired by the principle of common but differentiated responsibility) to measure and track progress towards sustainable development and ensure accountability.
All countries need to take action to impact on extreme poverty but not all countries will take the same action. Global action needs to improve the lives of people most affected by poverty and injustice, including vulnerable and marginalized groups, while respecting environmental thresholds and boundaries.
Universal goals and targets which are consistent with national priorities and targets will require strong consensus on the underlying principles of the new framework. As the UN Task Team notes, effective implementation requires policy coherence guided by an overall vision and underlying principles. Beyond 2015’s current thinking on the principles is set out here.
Beyond 2015 suggests that a set of criteria be agreed, that should include for example human rights, equality, sustainability and accountability. Accountability in particular will be a crucial concept to ensure consistency between the global, national and community levels. Beyond 2015 is currently developing this idea through its work on Vision, Purpose, Principles and Criteria.
Finally, in order to universalize goals, it will be necessary to identify common interests and priorities of all people everywhere . As highlighted elsewhere, Beyond 2015 suggests that poverty eradication, environmental sustainability, human rights and inequality could be considered key common interests.

Anonymous from Array
jeu, janvier 10, 2013 à 04.54 de l'après-midi

Any targets or indicators proposed under an overarching health goal should include measures of access, disaggregated by age, sex and place of residence, to all essential sexual and reproductive health services including: comprehensive sexuality education; non-coercive sexual and reproductive health counseling; a wide range of short- and longer-term modern contraceptives that are available without requirements for spousal or parental consent; assisted conception measures; prevention of sexually transmitted infections and diseases that can affect healthy pregnancies (e.g., malaria); adequate and accessible antenatal, delivery and post-natal care; and prevention and management of unwanted pregnancies through easily accessible and legal emergency contraception and safe abortion care.

In addition, targets and indicators should be formulated regarding the implementation of laws and policies and fulfillment of obligations assumed with the ratification of international treaties that promote access to all evidence-based reproductive health services. A particular concrete focus can be placed on indicators to monitor improvements achieved in data collection systems regarding access to reproductive health services, such as contraceptive use, skilled birth attendance, postabortion care and safe abortion, disaggregated by age, residence and socioeconomic status. Guidance issued by OHCHR on the use of human rights indicators provides concrete examples of such indicators.

ICAE Secretariat from Array
jeu, janvier 10, 2013 à 04.29 de l'après-midi

Local and democratic ownership must be at the core of a new development agenda while respecting internationally agreed human rights and standards. The post-2015 goals, targets and benchmarks should be designed to contain in-built flexibility to ensure that they can be locally defined by national governments based on their contextual priorities. Governments should support development actors’ (including women’s, youth, feminist organizations and movements) effective participation at local, national and international levels and at all stages of the development process (planning, implementing, monitoring and evaluating), as well as in setting and debating priorities and in aligning development and women’s human rights commitments. In some cases this may require the creation of relevant spaces and institutional mechanisms. Policy conditionalities (particularly economic policies) can have negative impacts on achieving development goals. They undermine the principle of ownership and contradict the right to development and self-determination. A new development agenda must move away from policy conditionalities towards consistent application of concepts of multiple responsibility, accountability and transparency by all actors involved. This could be advanced, for example, by supporting democratic scrutiny of development goals, policies and results. It is important to go beyond existing indicators (like GDP) so that diverse communities can claim their own indicators of well being and sustainability that are responsive to their realities and rooted in the socioeconomic condition of each nation (and still in line with universal human rights commitments).

Anonymous from Array
jeu, janvier 10, 2013 à 04.01 de l'après-midi

Most policy delivery is at national level and therefore a post-2015 settlement needs to be anchored in countries’ own priorities and measures of progress. At the same time, we also need an international architecture which sets and ensures minimum norms below which people shouldn't fall, so that governments are held to account nationally and internationally and support for the poorest is assured.

For example, we believe a post-2015 settlement should include a commitment by all governments to incorporate an international minimum income guarantee as one of a number of policies aimed at protecting the lives and livelihoods of the most vulnerable. Delivery of this commitment will be achieved at national level through a variety of policy interventions chosen by the national government - including through creation of livelihoods, cash transfers, insurance and social protection schemes to protect the incomes of the poorest. This would be backed by an international architecture acting as a backstop to support governments who cannot afford the full cost of meeting this commitment independently.

Anonymous from Array
Mer, janvier 9, 2013 à 12.52 du matin

Con la participación de la sociedad. Por lo general los que menos poseen son quienes realizan adecuadamente los compromisos. Realizando presupuestos de las necesidades, convocando a todas las partes y luego que se llegue a objetivos comunes cumplirlos puntualmente a todos los presupuestos.

Anonymous from Array
mar, janvier 8, 2013 à 05.21 de l'après-midi

To be useful the SDGs must, like the MDGs, be simple, clear, and reflect a broad global consensus - which is not the same as unanimity. There is no point in trying to devise complex wording which will invariably square national with global priorities, other than to recognise clearly from the outset the plain fact that sovereign nations are entitled to prioritise as they see fit.

Pauline Rose from Array
jeu, janvier 3, 2013 à 06.03 de l'après-midi

International goals, such as ensuring all children are in school and learning, should be set while allowing flexibility within countries to ensure that priorities are established that are relevant to the national context. This may differ, for example, according to whether boys or girls are most disadvantaged in access to education and learning, whether children with disabilities are being given opportunities, whether some regions are left behind due to conflict or other factors, or whether education systems needs to be adapted to the learning needs of particular groups, such as pastoralists. International goals should not be seen as undermining such national priorities and strategies but rather a means to strengthen them.

Anonymous from Array
dim, décembre 30, 2012 à 10.58 du matin

Education is a universal goal: the West needs to learn about sustainability, the impact of its actions on coutnries like China and India, and how to move away from fossil fuels. The developing world needs to learn about sustainability in the context of the mistakes of the West (so that they do not repeat those mistakes). They also need basic skills in terms of designing solutions to their own problems. So, a focus on education keeps goals universal.

Anonymous from Array
mar, janvier 1, 2013 à 05.05 de l'après-midi

Apologies for my second response, but I must also reference my response to question B1 here, regarding universal structures being supplied (once properly tried and tested) to the organisations that are working together, such that these structures can be followed with/without appropriate minor adaptations. This brings people closer to unity - especially if the construction of these systems is participatory!

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