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WorldWeWant2015 Content
en Son las 09.42 pm de Vie, Diciembre 28, 2012


How should a new framework address resilience to crises? 

¿Cómo debería un futuro marco de desarrollo afrontar el tema de la resiliencia ante las crisis? 

Comment le nouveau programme de développement devrait-il aborder le thème de la résilience face aux crises ?

Please or to post a comment.
Anonymous from Array
Son las 08.58 am de Mié, Enero 16, 2013

The fulfillment of SRHR makes families healthier. Healthier families are more resilient and better able to thrive when facing crises or environmental challenges. In addition, combined with changes in unsustainable production and consumption patterns, smaller families can help relieve pressures on limited resources and fragile ecosystems.

Anonymous from Array
Son las 11.45 am de Lun, Enero 14, 2013

The current MDGs are largely relied on a model of external financing for development, through aid and foreign investment. The economic crisis has shown this to be a risky and fragile strategy, vulnerable to changes in donor country governments and the instability of a global financial market. While aid and foreign investment will continue to be a key part of realising development goals, the financial crisis shows in the long term the future MDG framework will need to provide incentives for rich countries to look at financing beyond aid. Importantly, developing and developed countries will need to explore how to work together to put development finance on a more sustainable footing in order to sustain important progress that has been achieved.
Emerging economies are becoming significant aid givers. Between 2000 and 2010 ODA from non-DAC economies increased from $1,146 to $7,235 million . The new framework offers an opportunity for a new multilateralism, which cross cuts across old dividing lines and allegiances. It also offers the opportunity to give a platform to new and innovative ways of financing and programming for poverty alleviation. Further, in-country financing mechanisms need to be developed and countries should commit to funding targets from internally generated revenues. In countries where high income inequalities persist there should be efforts made through taxation and social insurance schemes to re-distribute wealth.
We recommend that:
• To avoid losing hard-won progress on the MDGs, the future framework should include stable financing and a comprehensive response to economic shocks.
• The future framework should provide incentives to both donor and recipient countries to make progress on tax reform, for example through a target for increasing the proportion of developing country expenditure financed through tax.

Anonymous from Array
Son las 01.16 am de Sáb, Enero 12, 2013

A gender equality and human rights focus can build resilience, and it is equally important to address root causes of inequalities to reduce the need for resilience. Resilience to crises will depend on numerous factors, including degree of food sovereignty, not just food security; access to information; capacity building; gender equality; women’s rights; and indigenous rights.

A focus on equality and sustainability, as well as the realization of rights, could improve the livelihoods and well-being of the global community and lead to increased resilience to crises. An over-prioritization of economic growth has overshadowed efforts and thwarted progress on social justice and environmental sustainability issues, which can impact resilience.

To reach equality and sustainability will require efforts to address inequities, and equity between countries is only part of the equation. Equity within countries needs urgent attention, as well. While women make up half of most nations’ populations, they enjoy far fewer rights, smaller paychecks, and typically higher invisible work burdens than men.

Rob Wheeler from Array
Son las 12.46 am de Sáb, Enero 12, 2013

It is critically important that the new framework address the need for resilience to any and all crises. This must begin by putting in place the means, mechanisms and funding needed to fulfill all of the existing goals and commitments that have been made and focus on prevention and on making as complete a transition to full sustainably as rapidly as possible.

We must adopt the requirement of living within the carrying capacity of the earth as the fundamental basis for achieving sustainable development, recognize that it is essential that we live within all planetary boundaries, and fully honor and live up to the Rio Principles. Indeed the Rio Principles and Declaration should be recognized as fundamental basis for the post 2015 framework and carrying out the SDGs by all parties.

Again adopting an integrated, multi-sectoral community based approach to sustainable rural and impoverished urban development would add greatly to the ability to develop real resiliency at a community level and to prevent global crises. The development of a global program to support such efforts, with funding made available to establish regional networks of resource and service centers and training programs, each serving some 50 - 100 villages or impoverished urban neighborhoods, would go a long ways towards achieving both the MDGs and SDGs in the coming years.

Such a global program could ensure that all people's basic human rights and needs are met, thus dramatically improving the quality of life for several billion people. Once established and initially funded it could basically pay for itself. However, there ought to be a reliable and sufficient source of investment monies that are readily available in order to be able to establish such valuable programs as this.

Rob Wheeler, Global Ecovillage Network, EcoEarth Alliance UN Partnership Initiative, USA

Anonymous from Array
Son las 11.44 pm de Vie, Enero 11, 2013

Pervasive financial fissures continue to compound pre-existing food, fuel and ecological crises, leaving the current MDG framework increasingly ill-equipped to address the deep governance challenges of a multi-polar, interdependent and ever-more volatile world . One of the clearest lessons of the last few years is the need for the post-2015 development framework to address the root causes of these crises which have created fundamental obstacles to achieving sustainable development goals in all countries. Three key issues for inclusion in the new framework to prevent instability and volatility in development are: a) the need for more effective and transparent financial regulation, both domestically and globally; b) the reform of tax systems and policies at the national and international levels to ensure more resources are generated and allocated fairly for the purpose of development and human rights fulfilment; and c) more truly equitable mechanisms of global economic governance, especially in the trade, debt, monetary and finance sectors.

Given current consensus on the overwhelming need for a universal social protection floor, a Global Fund for Social Protection, as proposed by human rights experts, is an appealing mechanism for sustainably and cooperatively financing social protection for all in a climate of increased funding volatility in this critical area.

-Center for Economic and Social Rights (CESR)

Anonymous from Array
Son las 11.35 pm de Vie, Enero 11, 2013

By investing in local democracy and promoting civic participation and human rights we can build resilience in communities. It is also important to build capabilities and livelihoods so that communities have the internal capacity to respond in times of crisis, and to ensure that women are equitably involved in both crisis response and preparedness.

Anonymous from Array
Son las 11.34 pm de Vie, Enero 11, 2013

The new framework requires a system of evaluation, like that in the MDGs. This process of evaluation however requires a system of modifying the intervention if the health or social situation changes in a country. This again means you need an in built review system and be able to stage your objectives so that you can say ‘achieve x by this year and the ultimate objective by x.’

Luther-King Fasehun from Array
Son las 11.31 pm de Vie, Enero 11, 2013

Dr Luther-King Fasehun
The Wellbeing Foundation Africa

A new framework should address resilience to crises by assessing political stability; food supply and distribution; and equity-based economic growth.

Anonymous from Array
Son las 11.10 pm de Vie, Enero 11, 2013

Fomentar la Resiliencia genera sujetos independientes de las instituciones, sin embargo, son sujetos de derechos a quienes la atención de sus necesidades es prioritaria y debe ser resuelta por el Estado en turno. Este tema, debe ir acompañado de políticas que propicien condiciones de posibilidad ante las cuales están siendo sujetos de crisis.

European Youth Forum from Array
Son las 11.07 pm de Vie, Enero 11, 2013

Evidence indicates that poverty and inequalities at global and national level are critical factors contributing to vulnerability to crises that result from conflicts, natural disasters, climate risks and financial collapses. As also shows how inextricably linked these events and development are.

Therefore, the European Youth Forum considers that the new development agenda should address the resilience to crises by tackling the drivers of such vulnerability, associated with poverty and limited access to resources, education, healthcare and employment, along with social discrimination, lack of participation in decision-making and conflicts.

And this would be achieved by offering a framework that contributes to a more inclusive and sustained global development. Which means embracing the cross cutting principles of democratic governance and human rights whilst integrating environmental sustainability, human development, economic development. These issues needs to be tackled through supporting accountability at all levels, providing individuals and organisations with financial security and focusing on those that suffer the most (such as young people) in times of crises.

Anonymous from Array
Son las 10.42 pm de Vie, Enero 11, 2013

Future development agenda should consider policies for social protection as it aims to reduce vulnerability and building social capacity to address economic and social risks such as unemployment, exclusion, sickness, disability and old age. Social protection systems as an effective automatic stabilizer contribute to mitigating the economic and social impact of economic downturns, to enhancing resilience, and achieving faster recovery towards inclusive growth.” In the absence of social protection, people, especially the most vulnerable, are subjected to increased risks of sinking below the poverty line or remaining trapped in poverty for generations.

Anonymous from Array
Son las 10.32 pm de Vie, Enero 11, 2013

There is no doubt that the financial and economic crisis of 2008, preceded by the double crisis that affected the energetic and food markets and systems, will be reminded as a breaking point. First, we urge to keep analysing and working on the interlinkages with ongoing crisis including food, environment (particularly in relation to climate change), care, and increasing inequality. Second, the overall responses to the crisis fell short to address structural dimensions including finance regulation; the role of the state in the frame of different paradigms of development; the increasing dominance of private sector actors over states (and therefore tax payers) left to finance the rescue and irresponsibility of the financial sector. A new framework should look at these dimensions.
Third, in times of crisis we shall pay closer attention to socially excluded sections of the poor who are systematically left out or left behind from responses to the crisis.

Resilience to crisis should put the social justice agenda back to the centre. Human rights and equity shall be key to generate resiliency. This interrelationship should be at the core of the new framework.

Addressing resilience should not rely on a one-size fits all model. The international community and governments need to take stock from experience and ensure that global stimulus packages that ensure decent jobs for all and protect social floors, quality food and nutrition, and human development ( economic, social and environmental).
It should also address global financial instability and engage in a committed negotiation to establish a new international monetary system that prevents speculation against currencies, puts an end to a single country’s currency being the reference of the system, rules out the need of holding considerable foreign reserves and provides for a certain level of currency-exchange predictability.
A profound reform of the international financial institutions (IFIs) is needed. Their guiding framework should not be the imposition of neoliberal economic policies and maximizing economic growth.
This would include elimination of loan policy conditionalities so that countries could choose to use counter-cyclical policies to protect living standards, trade, and employment. Finally gender equality, women’s empowerment and the human rights of women should be central to this new framework.

Anonymous from Array
Son las 10.31 pm de Vie, Enero 11, 2013

Resilience is central to poverty reduction & fundamental for poverty eradication as poverty is as much about precariousness as it is about assets. Economic, environmental or social shocks can entrench poverty & existing inequalities. We suggest a number of different approaches that in our view will contribute to a more resilient, human development framework.
Building resilience requires moving away from a crises management approach to one that is more risk based. It requires that environmental shocks are treated as recurrent & natural events that affect production & livelihoods by expecting preparing for & mitigating them & adapting multi-year development finance streams to be agile enough to deal with crises when they occur. It means that the next framework needs to address the structural factors underpinning acute & chronic crises & vulnerability (eg poor health & education) & the distinct livelihood needs of the most vulnerable populations. Capacity must be built for contingency planning & effective action to environmental, social or economic shocks, & early warning systems are essential.
For resilience to become central to poverty eradication requires a major paradigm shift in development, aid, the use of targeted social protection programmes & the systematic assessment of the impact of development programmes in terms of risk reduction or strengthened resilience. We recommend a focus on the poorest, most marginalised & vulnerable, & emphasise the importance of social protection systems. We propose two goals, one on building disaster-resilient societies by improving early warning systems, reducing inequality & exposure to disaster risk, & another on building a sustainable, healthy & resilient natural environment. This approach is unlikely to go far enough to integrate the environmental sustainability, development & disaster risk reduction agendas. We recommend the post 2015 team give special attention to how this can be achieved & to this end we hope the Hyogo Framework of Action review outcomes will be integrated into the post 2015 process.
The post 2015 process should play a pivotal role in ensuring that resilience is integrated with the development agenda. A systematic, collective approach by all development & humanitarian actors is needed, to bring about the required significant institutional changes. Agreement is needed about what the system for achieving resilience is, what each actor’s role is, the objectives & necessary actions.

Anonymous from Array
Son las 10.26 pm de Vie, Enero 11, 2013

The UNESCAP 2012 report demonstrates that rather than increase resilience, rapid economic growth has too often contributed to greatly increased risks from environmental disasters within the Asia–Pacific region. This is reflected in the estimated doubling of the number of people who are likely to die as a result of flooding.
Recognising that there are many causes of crises, this is only one example of why the issue of crisis resilience requires serious consideration globally and why disaster preparedness, management and recovery need to be integrated into development, rather than separated. Apart from other factors the inexorable advance of climate change means that ” the world is not the same; we are not the same,” and we must learn to “do development differently.” As part of a comprehensive approach, communities must be supported to increase their resilience, including disaster preparedness and management, and be involved in planning and in a co-ordinated response, and the underlying factors that increase the vulnerability of the poorest and most marginalised people need to be urgently addressed.Examples of where communities have been trained and supported in crisis preparedness and response demonstrate the value of this,as they have succeed in reducing the loss of life and of hard won development gains.
Gill Greer, Christina Jenkins, Jean Tan :members of the International Forum on Development Service

Anonymous from Array
Son las 09.54 pm de Vie, Enero 11, 2013

The current global economic crisis is evidence that the economic policies of the past three decades have not worked. In fact, they now threaten the security of basic human rights. The devastation that the crisis has brought on the most vulnerable households in the Global North and the Global South is a reminder that the formulation of economic policy and the realization of human rights have, for too long, been divorced from one another. A framework which addresses resilience to crisis much consider multiple dimensions of inequality – along the lines of class, race, gender, sexuality, language, disabilities, and regions.

Vladimir Cuk from Array
Son las 09.54 pm de Vie, Enero 11, 2013

The “responsibilities of States to respect, protect and promote human rights and fundamental freedom for all” is now formally recognized in final outcome document of Rio 2012. This can be achieved by including people with disabilities and adopting a rights-based approach. The right to food security, water rights and sustainable agriculture would assist in improving food quality; ensuring appropriate utilization of food; and involving crisis prevention, preparedness and management.
Mechanisms for the assessment and monitoring of malnutrition and food crisis need to be established as a minimum requirement in food security and humanitarian programmes.
We need resilient development that enables us all to live well despite environmental degradation. A future inclusive development framework needs to be able to deliver poverty reduction in a world with weak environmental governance, scarcer natural resources and increasing impacts of a warmer climate.

People living in poverty, especially persons with disabilities are less vulnerable to climate change and resource shocks when their livelihoods are secure, adaptable and accessible.

Persons with disabilities are more likely to be victims of natural disasters and emergency situations due to a lack of preparation of planning in accessible facilities, services and transportation. Disruption of physical, social, economic, environmental networks and support system affect persons with disabilities much more than general population. The UNCRPD in its Article 11. on situations of risk and humanitarian emergencies addresses the obligation of state parties to undertake “all necessary measures to ensure the protection and safety of persons with disabilities in situations of risk, including situations of armed conflict, humanitarian emergencies and the occurrence of natural disasters.”

Anonymous from Array
Son las 08.40 pm de Vie, Enero 11, 2013

The new framework needs to both strongly support civil society and be reliant on civil society to ensure substantive resilience to crises. In particular, it needs to support an enabling environment for civil society so that government institutions in times of crisis can draw sustenance from a well-developed and functioning civil society.

Joseph Schechla from Array
Son las 08.18 pm de Vie, Enero 11, 2013

Follow the outcomes of the FAO High Level Expert Forum on Food Security in Protracted Crises (2012–).

Habitat International Coalition
Housing and Land Rights Network

Anonymous from Array
Son las 06.22 pm de Vie, Enero 11, 2013

HDF-Human Development Foundation

Crisis and disasters, whether natural or instigated by man, cripples countries. The immediate and aftermath effects of such disasters are even more amplified when they are in a developing nation that is already struggling with poverty and low development. The largest issue that we have to consider is predictability: whether these disasters are unexpected, forecasted, or ongoing. The new framework should build up the resiliency of vulnerable Member States experiencing internal conflict, food shortages, and other disasters that contribute to low human development.
A Global Body for crisis or disaster management should be created and implemented. The Global Body must be accountable for a thorough analysis of threat perceptions around the globe, and continuously provide and maintain updates.
Similar bodies should be created in the various regions across Member States. A specific global disaster fund should be created, implemented, practiced, managed, and controlled by accountable Member States.
Technology should also be utilized to provide threat analysis for natural disasters in geographically vulnerable regions and countries.

1). Crisis have a devastating “ripple effect” in developing nations. It is imperative to develop comprehensive, multi-faceted, proactive “disaster” plan for each vulnerable nation

2). Address immediate human mortality rates due to disaster and crisis. By preventing the loss of as many human lives, the overall, damaging effect of a crisis and disaster can be halved.

Name: Zainab Z. Khan
Organization: Human Development Foundation
Email: ZKhan@HDF.com
Web: www.HDF.com
Facebook: www.Facebook.com/LikeHDF
Twitter: @followHDF @ZainabZeb

Anders Hylander from Array
Son las 06.18 pm de Vie, Enero 11, 2013

HelpAge International is calling for:

• Inclusion of a focus on older people in the outcomes of the three priority pillars of the sustainable development agenda, recognising that older people are both affected by environmental change and survivors of past crises and are key contributors to global sustainability.
• An international post-2015 framework for sustainable development which ensures that action on ageing is mainstreamed and outcomes monitored.
• Inclusion of the voices and experiences of older women and men, particularly on ecological knowledge and experience, in consultations and planning on environmental sustainability resilience building, disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation.
• Action to support older farmers and to address the food security challenges posed by the ageing of farm workforces worldwide, and of environmental change.
• Action by the humanitarian community to address the invisibility of older people in humanitarian crises, ensuring that needs assessments and programmes respond to age-specific vulnerabilities.
• Action by the international community and national governments to ensure adequate provision and protection of older people and their assets. Migration and displacement often leave older people behind without support, and they can also be main caregivers for grandchildren when they relocate to new and unfamiliar environments.
• The mainstreaming of age-inclusive measures into all government and civil society health programmes to address the associated health risks for older people due to environmental hazard and climate change, including integration of action on NCDs across the life course.
• Environmentally sound national energy strategies which recognise and address the energy and fuel poverty of all vulnerable groups including older people.
• Full implementation of social protection floors within the post-2015 framework, ensuring that mechanisms such as social pensions are fully utilised to address vulnerability and enhance resilience to current and emerging risks.
• The use of existing and development of new age-inclusive data sets to measure poverty and vulnerability to hazard, inequality, capability and wellbeing across the life course at national and international levels.

(Read more)

Anonymous from Array
Son las 05.13 pm de Vie, Enero 11, 2013

Given the projected increase in the occurrence of disasters, development progress will be contingent more than ever before on measures to avoid disaster impacts. DRM should therefore be included into the post-2015 development agenda. A failure to include disaster risk management in the framework could undermine progress. Strengthening resilience requires a range of measures, from reducing greenhouse gas emissions, to factoring disaster and climate risks into economic and development policy, to ensuring effective national policy and regulatory risk management to address the drivers of disaster risk. Given that DRM cuts across development sectors, ministries and economic policy – involving multiple
stakeholders at all scales – it should be both mainstreamed into a broad range of development activities and supported by a dedicated, technically sound and efficient coordinating instrument.
This will help to strengthen political will and integrate risk management into development planning, which is fundamental to furthering progress on reducing disaster risk and strengthening resilience.

Elaine Geyer-Allely from Array
Son las 05.05 pm de Vie, Enero 11, 2013

WWF International
Resilience to crises covers a broad array of issues. WWF’s contribution addresses just vulnerability and resilience in the face of natural disasters and climate change and the role of ecosystems to reduce vulnerabilities and disaster risk and increase resilience.
According to the latest Inter-Governmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation (SREX) released in 2012, climate change will magnify existing vulnerabilities to disasters due to changing patterns of some hazards (such as heat waves, less predictable water availability, and more frequent droughts and floods) in specific regions and due to increased population exposure and land-use changes. Growing concentrations of people and infrastructure in urban areas make cities particularly vulnerable (World Bank, 2012: Toward a Green, Clean, and Resilient World for All: A World Bank Group Environment Strategy 2012 – 2022).
A growing number of organizations are working to integrate and build capacity for ecosystem management for disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation: see for example the Partnership for Environment and Disaster Risk Reduction. Maintaining and enhancing ecosystems for natural hazard mitigation and disaster prevention can strengthen local adaptation capacities to counter the effects of climate-related risk. Healthy and well-managed ecosystems- such as coral reefs, mangroves, forests, floodplains and wetlands- reduce disaster risk by acting as natural buffers or protective barriers, for instance through flood and landslide mitigation and water filtration and absorption. At the same time, fully-functioning ecosystems build local resilience against disasters by sustaining livelihoods and providing important products to local populations (PEDDR, 2012). All future development interventions (goal driven or other) should be climate smart (i.e. not contribute to emissions, address adaptation and resilience). These experiences should inform the post-2015 development agenda and climate-smart development strategies in order to capitalize on the combined social, economic and environmental benefits from ecosystem-based adaptation.

Anonymous from Array
Son las 05.02 pm de Vie, Enero 11, 2013

The work that has been undertaken by the G20 under the Mexican presidency has been very welcome, both in building a framework which gives priority to national engagement and ownership and in providing global co-ordination of a number of disparate initiatives. It has also been very much welcomed that the Mexican presidency involved the Anglican Alliance, as a faith community, in its civil society platform. Any new framework needs to continue the process of national and local ownership and global co-ordination, and to continue to engage with civil society, including faith communities.
Faith communities have been working together to agree some strategies for resilience to crises. For example Episcopal Relief and Development, the development agency of The Episcopal Church in the USA has been developing a toolkit for use by church communities, and a number of faith communities and agencies in the UK have been working with UNHCR. It is very strongly recommended that any new framework incorporates mechanisms for working with faith communities, and builds on existing initiatives.
In the Pacific the faith communities are completely embedded in the local communities and respond to the constant crises. They need to be regarded as partners with the international community in continuing with the development initiatives once the immediate crisis is over, to enable them to devise strategies to avoid repetition of the disasters rather than continually patching the same old wound.

Anonymous from Array
Son las 04.42 pm de Vie, Enero 11, 2013

A new framework addressing resilience to crises should be inclusive of the most marginalised populations. For instance, there is now clear evidence of the relationship between disability and vulnerability to disasters. In fact, there are four groups of structural factors acting as the pathways to increase inequality during crises (Smith, Jolley & Schmidt, 2012 “Disability and disasters: The importance of an inclusive approach to vulnerability & social capital”):
• A lack of information and knowledge of disability issues among governments and relief organisations;
• Exclusion of persons with disabilities from disaster management and relief organisations;
• Inaccessibility of physical environments, preparedness measures, shelters and relief aid;
• Stigma and discrimination.

It is essential, therefore, to work with disabled people to identify existing risks and opportunities disaster preparedness and response can better respond to their specific needs. Overall, it is recommended that the new framework should support disability-inclusive policies, strengthen information systems and build the capacity of disabled people’s organisations and networks.

Anonymous from Array
Son las 03.41 pm de Vie, Enero 11, 2013

Poor and marginalized people are the most vulnerable to the effects of crises. They cannot afford to take measures to protect themselves from anticipated crises or to recover from the effects. The new framework will need to address the core factors which exacerbate the vulnerability of impoverished and marginalized populations who are most vulnerable to crises. It is important to note that the financial, food and climate crises are all strongly interlinked, with the drive for short-term profits and growth promoting risk taking and excessive use of credit in finance, protectionism in developed country agriculture and food price speculation, and the environment’s relegation to resource base and dumping ground.

The financial crisis resulted from a “casino economy” founded on aims to achieve perpetual growth through credit and risk. It was created by the fickle gambling of corporate institutions facilitated by a distinct lack of regulation and accountability mechanisms from states. The financial and economic crisis undid much of the progress done through the MDGs, highlighting the precarious nature of this progress. This illustrated how progress on MDG1 was unsustainable without addressing structural economic problems.

The new framework should have at its core a new financial architecture. There must be less export dependence and more focus on domestic demand for developing countries so as to ensure their resilience to external crises is lessened, while unsustainable jobless growth should be avoided. Inequality is a central element to resilience to financial crisis. Underpinning economic measures must be strong social protection to protect the poor and marginalized. The new development framework must ensure states implement universal access to social protection with measures to protect disadvantaged and marginalized groups.

The Campaign for People’s Goals for Sustainable Development is a global campaign of grassroots organizations, labor unions, social movements and non-governmental organizations and other institutions committed to promoting new pathways to the future we want. The full campaign statement is available at: www.iboninternational.org/cpgsd.

Saferworld from Array
Son las 02.57 pm de Vie, Enero 11, 2013

As the Institute for Economics and Peace has documented, not only is peace good for economic development, environmental health, and social cohesion, but ‘countries with higher levels of peacefulness tend to be more resilient to external shocks, whether economic, geopolitical or natural disasters’(Institute for Economics and Peace, Structures for Peace, 2011, p 2.). The World Bank has reached similar conclusions. (Keefer P., Conflict and disaster, World Bank, Development Research Group, March 2009). Broadly speaking, the elements of improved state-society relations that uphold sustainable peace, (see Saferworld’s response to question A6) are similar to those that enable states to better manage crises of different kinds. In this sense, it is not only possible but also essential for the post-2015 framework to integrate commitments that build peace with those that promote resilience, sustainability and poverty reduction.

Anonymous from Array
Son las 02.06 pm de Vie, Enero 11, 2013

Anticipation of possible crises is crucial to building resilience. While it is difficult to put in place adequate arrangements to deal with all contingencies, it should be possible to take effective measures to mitigate the impact of, at least, some of them. The new framework should include measures to build resilience to crises such as severe food shortages, energy shortages, failure of market mechanisms including financial markets etc at global level. Food shortages, for instance, can be reduced through increased production and improvements in transportation, storage and reduction of wastage. Moreover, there should be a ban on or strict regulation of speculation in essential food commodities. It is also necessary to reduce the prices of inputs – seeds, fertilisers, agricultural implements etc used in the food chain. The effects of severe food shortages on the poor and the vulnerable could be mitigated by supporting governments in their efforts to build buffer stocks of essential food commodities. The impact of high energy prices on the developing economies could be lessened through a price stabilisation system enabling developing nations to purchase energy at relatively stable prices. Moreover, the stabilisation of energy prices will also contribute to that of food prices, as fuels play a significant part in the determination of food prices. The implementation of meaningful reforms of the international financial markets will go a long way in reducing the impact of the failures of financial markets on developing countries, notably, on the poor and vulnerable sections of society.
The TUC also supports the introduction of nationally determined social protection floors which will help the poor and the vulnerable sections of society to recover from the consequences of crises.

Anonymous from Array
Son las 02.03 pm de Vie, Enero 11, 2013

Anticipation of possible crises is crucial to building resilience. While it is difficult to put in place adequate arrangements to deal with all contingencies, it should be possible to take effective measures to mitigate the impact of, at least, some of them. The new framework should include measures to build resilience to crises such as severe food shortages, energy shortages, failure of market mechanisms including financial markets etc at global level. Food shortages, for instance, can be reduced through increased production and improvements in transportation, storage and reduction of wastage. Moreover, there should be a ban on or strict regulation of speculation in essential food commodities. It is also necessary to reduce the prices of inputs – seeds, fertilisers, agricultural implements etc used in the food chain. The effects of severe food shortages on the poor and the vulnerable could be mitigated by supporting governments in their efforts to build buffer stocks of essential food commodities. The impact of high energy prices on the developing economies could be lessened through a price stabilisation system enabling developing nations to purchase energy at relatively stable prices. Moreover, the stabilisation of energy prices will also contribute to that of food prices, as fuels play a significant part in the determination of food prices. The implementation of meaningful reforms of the international financial markets will go a long way in reducing the impact of the failures of financial markets on developing countries, notably, on the poor and vulnerable sections of society.

Anonymous from Array
Son las 01.13 pm de Vie, Enero 11, 2013

Experience and evidence from ActionAid’s Human Rights Based Approach to resilience show that the following factors are crucial to building comprehensive resilience especially at the community level:

1) Basic rights are secured: the basic needs of communities living in poverty and exclusion need to be protected, respected and fulfilled as rights with acive social protection measures in place. Policies must be community-driven and community-centric, with communities empowered to voice their concerns from national to international level to influence policies and practices that build resilience and protect and fulfill their rights. Policies should be community-driven so that people living in poverty, especially women, are mobilized andempowered to assess their vulnerability and take or demand appropriate actions to address structural and underlying causes of poverty. Social protection measures should be supported, strengthened and enhanced.
2) Advancing women’s rights: Women’s leadership should be promoted in all spheres of resilience-building and their rights protected, fulfilled and promoted in a non-instrumental way. Strategies must take into account and aim to reduce women’s unpaid care work and enhance their access to and control over assets and natural resources.
3) Programming: should be flexible and long-term to deal with new and emerging challenges; resilience building must be seen as a process that empowers communities. It should include resilience that respects and promotes environmental and eco-system sustainability.
4) Solidarity: comprehensive resilience relies on building solidarity, which involves supporting and sustaining a movement for change in which people living in poverty take the lead.
5) Bridging scientific and local knowledge: It is essential that local and scientific knowledge and systems must complement each other to build sustainable solutions primarily led by the communities living in poverty and exclusion.

Séverin SINDIZERA from Array
Son las 09.10 am de Vie, Enero 11, 2013

Je m'appelle SINDIZERA Séverin Directeur de l'orgarnisation des peuples autochtones dénommée Association pour l'intégration et Développement Durable au Burundi-AIDB, Burundi.

Un nouveau programme doit impliquer les pauvres pour identifier leurs besoins les plus imminents pour participer activement aux projets du développement.

Anonymous from Array
Son las 06.11 am de Vie, Enero 11, 2013

Resilience depends on the existence of a well integrated social support system that links governments, civil societies, communities, and their individuals in a deliberate effort to prepare for, mobilise the requisite resources, and minimise/forestall potential negative outcomes of foreseeable changes ahead of time.
Such efforts need to be sustainable and adaptable to changes themselves.

Anonymous from Array
Son las 05.04 am de Vie, Enero 11, 2013

A new framework addressing resilience should recognize both the causes of crises to begin with, and the most impactful approaches to resilience. With respect to the causes of crises, there are primarily man-made reasons for crises that are both environmental and political in nature.

The first problem is that the urban poor generally lack security of tenure, and are pushed into marginal areas of cities. They are therefore subject to the crises of eviction, flooding, and fire. The new framework should make it clear that in order to lessen the human impact of large natural incidents, they need to make well-located land available to the poor.

Secondly, investing in specific kinds of community organizational tools, especially women-led savings, builds social cohesion necessary to manage the physical impacts of disasters from flooding and fire.

Anonymous from Array
Son las 10.21 pm de Jue, Enero 10, 2013

A. It should be apparent that where societies do face compounding natural or manmade challenges to safety and security, some of the most at risk groups have their vulnerabilities even more exposed. Thus, having some development goals and/or guiding principles that the most vulnerable groups, even down to specific vulnerabilities that result from or are dramatically compounded by crisis situations, should receive the first line of defense is appropriate.

Nadine Rose Carole from Array
Son las 09.25 pm de Jue, Enero 10, 2013

The new framework should first and primarily address the root causes of the crises. When resources are scarce, they should be used to create the conditions to prevent the re-occurrence of crises.

Anonymous from Array
Son las 07.53 pm de Jue, Enero 10, 2013

Les pays les moins avancés continuent d’être vulnérables à divers chocs, dont les crises alimentaires, financières, économiques et du pétrole et les catastrophes naturelles, et font face à des problèmes posés par les changements climatiques et dans certains cas par les conflits, qui ont réduit à néant certains des résultats que ces pays avaient obtenus en matière de développement au cours des dix derniers années. Pour assurer une croissance économique et un développement durable, équitable et sans exclusive dans les pays les Moins avancés, il faut renforcer leur capacité de surmonter les crises et les problèmes nouveaux et de faire face aux effets des changements climatiques.
On s’attachera à atteindre les objectifs et buts ci-après, conformément aux politique de stratégies nationales de développement des pays les moins avancés :
• Renforcer la capacité des pays les moins avancés de surmonter les crises économiques et d’en atténuer les effets.
• Renforcer la capacité des pays les moins avancés de faire face aux effets néfastes des changements climatiques et de les surmonter, de favoriser une croissance durable de protéger la biodiversité
• Renforcer la capacité des pays les moins avancés à face aux catastrophes naturelles afin d’en réduire les risques.

Anonymous from Array
Son las 06.07 pm de Jue, Enero 10, 2013

Include grass-roots training of civilians to face disasters.

Clauses for crisis management: how to get back on the development track after the crisis - which systems needed to be improved, how can that be done, how can we resume development from where we left off (or as close as possible)?

Interests of corporate or civilian donors to be more practically minded, less of the "if I donate to this cause I look good", more practical involvement in the solutions would be better. This can come from the international community: sending expertise in the form of staff, could be one suggestion.

Anonymous from Array
Son las 05.44 pm de Jue, Enero 10, 2013

Human beings are drivers of development. Likewise, humans have the capacity to respond to all forms of crisis. To be able to prepare for situations of crisis, persons must be living in circumstances in which they are able to exercise their innate creativity. When persons are burdened by poverty or corruption, they are not able to harness their potential to combat different problems that may arise. Investment in the person is thus the solution and this begins in the family. Investing in the person requires investing in healthcare, education, infrastructure, and job creation. With healthy and educated individuals, families, and communities, persons are equipped to be civilly engaged and society enabled to better face situations of crisis.

Anonymous from Array
Son las 05.07 pm de Jue, Enero 10, 2013

Beyond 2015 is a global civil society campaign of +570 organisations from 95 countries aiming to influence the creation of a post-2015 development framework that succeeds the MDGs.
The post-2015 framework should adopt a different approach to its predecessor in order to contribute to genuine political, social, economic, environmental and developmental progress towards sustainable peace, an essential pre-requisite to poverty eradication. The framework should address multiple and interlinked factors that drive conflict and prevent the development of resilience against natural disasters and environmental change.

Long-term sustainable development, which includes these multiple factors, can only be delivered by a framework which recognises that the relationship between people and their governments is critical, and that the development of national and local institutions to manage conflict, build resilience to disasters and provide essential services must include all sections of society, including those most affected by poverty and injustice.

We believe the post-2015 framework should:

• Be a global overarching framework which has the flexibility to be pursued according to the individual circumstances of each country or region, reflecting the local dimensions of each
• Emphasise the active and meaningful involvement of communities as well as Governments in the design and operation of peacebuilding, state building, service delivery and disaster risk reduction strategies
• Place responsibility on each international intervention to respond to the diverse needs of the population regardless of their sex, age, caste, ability, ethnicity etc and ensure an inclusive and participatory approach in the design, delivery and evaluation of programmes
• Address resilience against conflict, violence and disaster through the promotion of active civic participation, responsiveness, accountability, protection of vulnerable groups and participation of people in decision making
• Recognise the challenges of meeting human development needs in conflict and disaster-affected countries and ensure that development actors are prepared to address these
• Build on existing efforts to improve the development progress in fragile states such as Peacebuilding and Statebuilding goals (PSGs) agreed in the New Deal at Busan and improve resilience to disasters based on outcomes from the Hyogo Framework for Action

ICAE Secretariat from Array
Son las 04.27 pm de Jue, Enero 10, 2013

It has to start by acknowledging that the financial crisis and economic recession that started in the North in 2008 was just one part of a set of interlocked ongoing crises including food, environment (particularly in relation to climate change), care and increasing inequality, pointing to a failed model of development focused on profit led-growth. Since then, the systemic crisis has deepened. While the impact of the financial crisis and economic recession was originally felt hardest in the global North, more recently the crisis has also severely hit emerging economies and other developing countries – with effects falling disproportionately on the poor, particularly women and other highly excluded populations. Responses to the crisis have failed to address its root causes,in particular the lack of proper regulation of the financial system, and have reinforced the dominance of private sector actors over states (and therefore tax payers) left to finance the rescue and irresponsibility of the financial sector. Risks and vulnerabilities are never equitably distributed:poor men and women are more vulnerable because of the structure of societies and economies. Addressing the causes of poverty should start by recognizing that the policies pushed by the neoliberal model have failed. Lack of access to economic assets, natural resources or to political power translates into greater risk and vulnerability when crises hit. From there we should agree on a set of values and policies that challenge the patriarchal,racist,unfair model and look for the pillars that would be the basis for gender, social and environmental justice. Thus it’s essential that when we talk about resilience,we must also talk about rights and equity and their contribution to resiliency. This must be at the core of the new framework. In order to address resilience to crises that could stall development efforts, a post-2015 agenda must learn from the past and commit to global stimulus packages that create full, decent productive employment including teachers, and protect social floors, food security, quality EFA and human development. A deep debate on the role of education in fostering this approach needs yet to be galvanized in the framework of post2015 debates. Education activists such as GCE, ICAE and others should be able to participate in these debates

Anonymous from Array
Son las 03.57 pm de Jue, Enero 10, 2013

A post-2015 settlement should include a commitment by all governments to incorporate an international minimum income guarantee as one of a number of policies aimed at protecting the lives and livelihoods of the most vulnerable and achieving the overall poverty elimination target. This guarantee would be set to ensure that as a minimum none of their citizens live on less than US$1.25 per day.

Delivery of this commitment will be achieved at national level through a variety of policy interventions chosen by the national government - including through creation of livelihoods, cash transfers, insurance and social protection schemes to protect the incomes of the poorest. This would be backed by an international architecture acting as a backstop to support governments who cannot afford the full cost of meeting this commitment independently. This would protect the most vulnerable people and ensure that they can better manage risk, make modest investments and take up opportunity.

Whilst it is for individual governments to determine how best to meet this basic income guarantee for their own citizens, we note that social protection schemes/social safety nets have played a key role in reducing poverty and vulnerability in a number of countries, as the following examples from Ethiopia clearly demonstrate.

• The Ethiopian Productive Safety Net Programme (PSNP) is the largest social safety nets programme in Africa. Financed by the Ethiopian Government and by aid, it successfully demonstrated a variety of comparative advantages over traditional humanitarian responses to food insecurity during the 2011 Horn of Africa food crisis. The PSNP response to the crisis cost an estimated US$53 per beneficiary compared with US$169 per beneficiary targeted through humanitarian response mechanisms. It also meant that consequences of the crisis were far less severe in the region. The PSNP is more responsive to early indications of crisis. It is therefore more efficient in ameliorating humanitarian crisis and is transformative in the medium term, lifting households out of chronic food insecurity.

Such schemes sometimes require a substantial upfront cost but evidence shows substantial long-term benefits. They should be adopted as part of a broader poverty reduction strategy and be supported by an interaction of the national and the international, so providing resilience to countries that move into and out of vulnerable situations.

Anonymous from Array
Son las 10.45 pm de Mié, Enero 9, 2013

La Humanidad para desarrollar, avanzar necesita de ocuparse en usar mas el cerebro., ETICA, LÒGICA Y MORAL.

Anonymous from Array
Son las 08.57 pm de Mié, Enero 9, 2013

Es tiempo de que la humanidad entera, nos ocupemos en utilizar mas nuestro cerebro.,a desarrollar nuestra creatividad., a vivir mas nuestra individualidad., ya no dependamos de todo y para todo., la gente comùn, enajenada con el avance tenologico en todos los campos, se han vuelto flojos, atenidos y en muchos casos mantenidos., todo mundo quiere que se le resuelva su problema., cuando el verdadero problema es su falta de razonamiento., tengo 30 años viviendo sola, la verdad es la mejor y mas grata experiencia, vives sin contaminaciòn alguna., tienes oxìgeno sano, tu pensamiento es libre y tu desarrollo como persona està garantizado., la mayorìa de la gente se casa o se junta solo porque los miedos, temores, inseguridad los acosa., es verdaderamente lamentable que la humanidad no avance como personas pensantes., es el gran rebaño que llevan a donde quieren los grandes dirigentes o autoridades, cuando la primera autoridad que debes de defender aplicar en tu vida eres tu mismo, como individuo., si por arte de magia todos nos responsabilisàramos de nuestra propia existencia con amor y respeto propio., tendrìamos el paraìso terrenal., se acabarìa la funciòn pùblica o el montòn de gasto que se refleja porque quieren los gobiernos solucionarles la vida, eso es hacerles mayor daño, en lugar de exigirles responsabilidad civil, social, etc.etc, en su propia individualidad.

Anonymous from Array
Son las 08.47 pm de Mié, Enero 9, 2013

La humanidad ha perdido el rumbo, o no ha querido seguir o aplicar las claves para el progreso y avance.

el alto sentido de la "AMBICIÒN MATERIAL" es el caos en este palneta.,l material es necesario en la vida de los pueblos, pero la espiritualidad es indispensable.

Un pueblo que no desarrolla su capacidad de razonamiento, creatividad , sensibilidad, es un pueblo que lo ha cegado la enorme ambiciòn a los material, a lo externo, a lo que realmente es lo que menos tiene interès, porque eso no nos evita de la "MUERTE".

Desde que somos "MORTALES"., allì se nos dice todo, la llave del èxito en nuestra existencia., mi Padre ns decìa: quiero que ustedes mis hijos "NUNCA PIERDAN EL PUNTO DE EQUILIBRIO DE LO ESPIRITUAL, CON LO MATERIAL""., recordemos que todo exceso es malo, todo exceso es negativo, perjudica, ademàs se nos inculcò que siempre nos manejàramos con la verdad, aunque esta no nos reportara el favorecernos con el resultado.

Se nos indicò por nuestros padres en casa, en familia, el "ESPÌRITU DE SERVICIO"., como el de un BOMBERO, PERO NO PRECISAMENTE EN MEDIO DEL INCENDIO., SINO QUE EN "cada instante de nuestra existencia".

Se nos hablò de respetar y defender un honor., el de los apellidos., que no necesariamente se debe de respetar al que mas dinero tenga., sino el que nos comparta su solvencia moral., con esto ganamos autoridad y respeto de quienes nos rodean.

Nos Indicaron nuestros queridos Padres., que los vicios son la puerta de escape de las faltas de quienes nos educaron en los primeros 6 años de vida.

En Mèxico, en lugar de velar y exigir la "PATERNIDAD RESPONSABLE"., hay o existen una serie de programas limosneros, que promueven al adicto., a las madres solteras., en lugar de enseñarles a vivir, enseñarles a razonar., yo uiero y he propuesto que se cambie el sistema de educaciòn primaria en mi paìs., en lugar de que en esos 6 años les quieran meter conocimientos acadèmicos., mejor sean aplicados en reformatearles su disco duro de su cerebrito y quitarles toda la informaciòn errònea que les producirà en edad adulta un caos, un infierno de vida.

Anonymous from Array
Son las 07.09 pm de Mié, Enero 9, 2013

Para buscar una vida digna, en cualquier nivel de la sociedad, pueblo o naciòn., o para todo desarrollo o avance de la humanidad, para lograr el bien comùn, es prioritario que los dirigentes de los gobiernos de los paìses, se apliquen en aumentar su capacidad de razonamiento, que se abran mas al desarrollo espiritual y se enfoquen mas los gobiernos en el lado "HUMANO"., en la medida que razonemos tendremos mejores paìses, existen muchas leyes., pero no se aplican, la mayorìa se violan, por la misma gente de los gobiernos, mas en los paìses latinos, por la falta de criterio, razonamiento y sensibilidad de los dirigentes o polìticos que solo buscan su beneficio propio. ÈTICA, LÒGICA, MORAL, exigir un perfil para los ciudadanos que aspiran a un puesto de gobierno., porque son el azote del pueblo, muchos programas con grandes presupuestos que no llegan al pueblo., se lo "ROBAN" los que estàn en el gobierno., lo digo porque "ME CONSTA"., por ello digo., MI PAÌS MÈXICO., ES UN "intento de paìs"., ¿DEMOCRACIA?., ESTÀ EN LOS LIBROS, Y CONTEMPLADA EN LOS DISCURSOS., PERO DE LO DICHO AL HECHO , HAY MUCHO TRECHO.la peor deshonestidad de la humanidad., es que: la teorìa no concuerde con la pràctica., decir una cosa y hacer otra cosa.,(Gandhi).

Anonymous from Array
Son las 10.07 am de Mié, Enero 9, 2013

Any form of indirect colonialism be stopped either by financial support or training of every form and such if found be call to book by international bodies.
Politicians most change their orientation on do or die affairs in in politics and campaigns be reduced to more of debates to convince the electorates based on what one has to offer and not based on how much money one would give.
Case of malpractice during elections most be stopped to avoid post election crisis which is anti development.
State of emergency is needed in the judiciary for re-engineering to eliminate the corrupt judges in the system who promote injustice thereby adding salt to injury, in this regard an audit of the judiciary is require to bring this sanity in the system
Regular awareness raising to farmers and pastoralist on trans pass and respect to humanity, while making education to be compulsory for all by ensuring that the child right act becomes enforceable on all.
Disaster risk reduction policy should be a policy enforceable at both national, states and local government levels to facilitate quick respond to situations as they unfold.
It should be a policy that people stay in refuge camp for a specific time frame there after returns to their respective places when necessary.

Anonymous from Array
Son las 12.57 am de Mié, Enero 9, 2013

La resiliencia sólo las sociedades pueden realizarla con información adecuada, relaciones de solidaridad, sin esperar algo para sí mismo sino dando todo lo necesario para el bien del otro.
Estableciendo lazos reales, vínculos por intereses superiores y que no sean sólo por intereses de algún tipo se construyen sociedades fuertes que pueden en algún momento hacer surgir esta habilidad. Cómo? Siempre con educación!

Anonymous from Array
Son las 10.04 pm de Mar, Enero 8, 2013

Crises is Crises and there should be robust action from both national and International partners. The current approaches are okay though more action is needed.

Anonymous from Array
Son las 05.05 pm de Mar, Enero 8, 2013

Since all natural disasters (eg floods, droughts, sea level rise etc) and many economic crises (eg famine) are easier to resolve with fewer people, and ultimately impossible with ever more, high priority for good, affordable family planning services within sexual and reproductive health programmes is an important element in maintaining resilience. Other elements are regional support networks, emergency stockpiles of food reserves etc.

Anonymous from Array
Son las 11.45 pm de Mié, Enero 9, 2013

Roger Martìn.,, debemos ser mas responsables como individuos, asì basados en ÈTICA,LOGICA Y MORAL., la humanidad avanzarìa de forma correcta., lo peor son los chamucos psicològicos de la gente que exageran con la ambiciòn a lo material., eso es lo que tiene al mundo con tanta desigualdad y hambruna., porque los que llegan al poder., JODEN., al menesteroso o indefenso., deberìamos de ocuparnos mas en desarrollarnos como seres humanos., la parte humana,la sensibilidad en mucha gente de los gobiernos està por debajo de la tierra., leyes de los hombres existen muchas y la mayorìa se violan por los mismos "MALOS, PÈSIMOS" servidores pùblicos., pero hay leyes "UNIVERSALES", que hablan por sì solas., y son las que la "CIENCIA" se encargò de violar., por eso estamos como estamos., rompieron con el equilibrio del planeta, ahora estamos sufriendo de esos desmanes, que gente disque inteligente ha hecho, y los menos inteligentes han aplaudido en su momento., pero que el tiempo se encargò de darnos los resultados mas nefastos que està sufriendo la humanidad., "VIVA EL MATERIALISMO"., el peor error de la humanidad.

Anonymous from Array
Son las 10.55 am de Dom, Diciembre 30, 2012

Our local government has just issued plans for a Disaster Risk Reduction plan. A group (NGO) was able to consult with the community to find out which disasters are occurring (veld fires, floods, lightening strikes, etc.) and their suggested solutions. So, this is participatory action.

Suggestion: all governments to set out Disaster Risk Reduction plans on a local and national scale. These should be formed by consultations with local organisations based in the communities themselves, allowing sufficient time to collect data from the community and ensuring the skills are available for robust research.

This also leads to education: government learns about its constituents' needs; NGO's learn about community needs; plan is forged by participatory action so everyone embraces it and implements it.

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